diversified institutions of higher technical education that train engineers for various sectors of the national economy, including machine building, instrument manufacturing, power engineering, metallurgy, the chemical industry, mining, the oil industry, transportation, communications, and construction. Polytechnical institutes are located in major industrial regions to ensure a supply of highly qualified engineering personnel in the required fields.
In 1975, the USSR had 62 polytechnical institutes. Of these, 26 awarded both doctors’and candidates’ degrees: the Byelorussian (founded 1933), the Voronezh (1956), the A. A. Zhdanov Gorky (1930), the Lenin Georgian (Tbilisi, 1922), the Donetsk (1921), the K. Marx Yerevan (1930), the Lenin Kazakh (1934), the Kalinin (1930), the Kaunas (1950), the 50th Anniversary of the Great October Socialist Revolution Kiev (1898), the Krasnodar (1943), the Kuzbas (Kemerovo, 1965), the V. V. Kuibyshev Kuibyshev (1930), and the M. I. Kalinin Leningrad (1902). Other polytechnical institutes offering both degrees were the L’vov (oldest in the USSR, founded 1844), the Sergo Ord-zhonikidze Novocherkassk (1907), the Odessa (1918), the Riga (1958), the Saratov (1960), the Tallinn (1918), the A. Biruni Tashkent (1933), the S. M. Kirov Tomsk (1896), the Tula (1963), the S. M. Kirov Ural’sk (Sverdlovsk, 1920), the Lenin Kharkov (1885), and the Leninskii Komsomol Cheliabinsk (1943).
There were also 11 polytechnical institutes awarding candidates’ degrees: the Ch. Il’drym Azerbaijan (Baku, 1950), the Vladimir (1964), the Volgograd (1930), the All-Union Correspondence (Moscow, 1932), the V. V. Kuibyshev Far East (Vladivostok, 1918), the Irkutsk (1930), the S. Lazo Kishinev (1964), the A. M. Gorky Mari (Ioshkar-Ola, 1930), the Perm’ (1960), and the Northwest Correspondence (Leningrad, 1930).
The other polytechnical institutes in the USSR are the I. I. Polzunov Altai (Barnaul, 1959), the Dagestan (Makhachkala, 1970), the Kirov (1962), the Komsomol’sk-na-Amure Evening (1955), the Krasnoiarsk (1956), the Kursk (1964), the Lipetsk (1973), the Novgorod (1973), the Omsk (1942), the Orenburg (1971), the Penza (1944), the Stavropol’ (1971), the Tadzhik (Dushanbe, 1956), the Tol’iatti (1967), the Turkmen (Ashkhabad, 1963), the Ukrainian Correspondence (Kharkov, 1958), the Ulianovsk (1957), the Fergana (1967), the Frunze (1954), and the Khabarovsk (1958).
Many polytechnical institutes have branches, departments, divisions, and training consultation centers at major industrial enterprises, construction projects, and other enterprises, sometimes located in other cities. For example, the Cheliabinsk institute has evening departments at the Cheliabinsk tractor and metallurgical plants and in the cities of Miass and Zlatoust and evening divisions in the cities of Kopeisk, Kyshtym, and Novyi Zlatoust.
At most polytechnical institutes, engineers pursue daytime, evening, and correspondence studies. The course of studies lasts from five to six years. Graduates defend a diploma project and receive degrees in such fields as mechanical engineering, power engineering, technological engineering, hydraulic engineering, and economic engineering.
For their success in training qualified personnel, 14 polytechnical institutes have been awarded orders. The Georgian institute has received the Order of Lenin and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor; the Kiev, Leningrad, L’vov, and Kharkov institutes have received the Order of Lenin; the Byelorussian, Far East, Donetsk, Kalinin, Novocherkassk, Odessa, Riga, and Ural’sk institutes have received the Order of the Red Banner of Labor; and the Tomsk institute has received the Order of the October Revolution and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor.
S. K. KANTENIK