ponderomotive force


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ponderomotive force

[‚pän·dər‚mōd·iv ′fȯrs]
(atomic physics)
The part of the interaction of light with atoms that exerts a force on the atoms, rather than coupling with their internal structure.
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A number of laser acceleration concepts in vacuum have been proposed by the use of a finite interaction geometry, the external fields, and the ponderomotive force to overcome the Lawson-Woodward theorem.
Under these conditions, once plasma electrons expelled by the ponderomotive force (radiation pressure) of the laser pulse form a plasma cavity called as a "bubble", (32) then some of them are self-injected into the wakefield by wavebreaking or restoring force exerted from an ion channel remaining unshielded behind the laser pulse.
[15] thought that the acceleration of the precipitation was due to the ponderomotive force.
Meanwhile, the effects of electromigration and ponderomotive force were introduced into the Avrami empirical equation to establish the dynamics equation of LDEPC added aging.
The existing research shows that the electromigration and the ponderomotive force caused by pulse current which can be expressed by [DELTA][PHI] = 2N x D x Z* x e x [rho] x f x [j.sub.m] x [[tau].sub.p]/([pi] x k x T) and [DELTA]We = [[mu].sub.0] x g x [epsilon]([[sigma].sub.1], [[sigma].sub.2])[j.sup.2] [DELTA]V, respectively, [14, 23-25] are the main factors to affect the atom diffusion and the free energy difference, respectively, which further affect the precipitation process (since the temperature rise caused by pulse current is small, the joule heating effect can be ignored).
It can be seen from Table 4 and Type (4) that the electromigration caused by pulse current significantly promoted the aging precipitation process by increasing the nucleation rate and crystal nucleus growing speed, while the introduction of the ponderomotive force slightly inhabited the aging precipitation by increasing the aging activation energy.
A ponderomotive force attracts a particle regardless of its charge to low intensity field areas and repels it from high field areas.
The ponderomotive force associated with an intense laser beam expels electrons radially and can lead to cavitation in plasma.
This force is called ponderomotive force and is directed along the gradient of the laser intensity.
[74.] Del Giudice E, Doglia S, Milani M (1983) Self-focusing and ponderomotive forces of coherent electric waves: a mechanism of cytoskeleton formation and dynamics, In: Frolich H, Kremer F (eds).
The researchers also point out the following problems appearing in such transducers: skin effect, acoustic manifestation of Barkhausen effect in ferromagnetic metals, appearance of ponderomotive forces [3].
Laser generated relativistic electrons, generated by relativistic ponderomotive forces at the critical density, are the key to fast ignition by electrons or protons.