Pontic Mountains


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Pontic Mountains

 

(also known as the Northern Anatolian Mountains), a mountain system in northern Turkey, extending along the Black Sea from west to east for approximately 1,000 km with widths up to 130 km. The Pontic Mountains include the Western Pontic, Canik, and Eastern Pontic mountains. They consist of several parallel ranges, which are separated by longitudinal valleys and chains of intermontane basins and cut by numerous gorges and the water gaps of the Kizil, Ye§il, and other rivers. The elevations of the ranges increase from west to east from 2,000–2,500 to 3,000–3,500 m. The highest peak is Kaçkar Dağ (3,931 m). The relief in the area of the eastern crests is alpine.

The Pontic Mountains form a fold and block frame around the Asia Minor and, in part, Armenian highlands. In the west they are composed primarily of sandstones, limestones, andesites, and metamorphic rocks, and in the east, of granites, gneisses, schist, and volcanic rocks. The Zonguldak coal basin is in the west, and the Murgul deposit of copper ores and complex ores is in the east. On the northern, more humid slopes (precipitation in Lazistan is 2,000 -3,000 mm per year), broad-leaved forests of oak, beech, and hornbeam give way at higher elevations to mixed and coniferous forests and meadows; in the west, the vegetation is of the maquis type. On the southern slopes, mountain steppes and semideserts alternate with thickets of thorny shrubs and mixed forests. The plains at the foot of the mountains and the intermontane basins are extensively cultivated and densely populated.

IU. K. EFREMOV

References in periodicals archive ?
Here you can visit Giresun, where the Romans first discovered cherries and then spread them to the world or perhaps take a hike through the tea plantations of the Pontic Mountains in Rize.
22, 2013, I wrote: "Enclosing the Central Anatolian Highlands are two great mountain ranges: the Pontic Mountains, running parallel and close to the southern coast of the Black Sea.
Collecting journeys in 2000 and 2001 allowed us to obtain samples from the Pontic Mountains (northeastern Turkey).
occurs in the most eastern mountains of Turkey (Pontic mountains).
Imagine the delegate from Fuqing (a port in the Taiwan Straight) greeting the envoy from Piddleville (Georgia, USA), or a row breaking out between Bugga (India), Bolluk (Pontic Mountains), and Farta (Nigeria) as to whose birthplace was the most vulgar.
As Hattusili III states in his Apology, the Kaska troops crossed the upper Kizilirmak once and even reached Kanes, but there is a consensus among scholars that the Kaska people lived in the Pontic mountains. Thus, Katapa must have been situated north of Hattusa and near the Kaska zone, i.e, the Pontus.