Pope, John

Pope, John,

1822–92, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Louisville, Ky. He fought with distinction at Monterrey and Buena Vista in the Mexican War and later served with the topographical engineers in the West. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Pope was made a brigadier general of volunteers. He served in Missouri under John C. Frémont and then under Henry W. Halleck. He was promoted to major general in Mar., 1862. As commander of the Army of the Mississippi, Pope captured New Madrid and Island No. 10Island No. 10,
former island in the Mississippi River, between NW Tenn. and SE Mo.; site of an important western campaign of the Civil War. With the advance of Union Gen. U. S. Grant up the Tennessee River, all Confederate positions, except New Madrid and Island No.
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 and took part in Halleck's move on Corinth. These successes brought him the command of the newly organized Army of Virginia (June, 1862) and a brigadier generalcy in the regular army. He attributed his bad defeat at the second battle of Bull RunBull Run,
small stream, NE Va., c.30 mi (50 km) SW of Washington, D.C. Two important battles of the Civil War were fought there: the first on July 21, 1861, and the second Aug. 29–30, 1862. Both battlefields are included in Manassas National Battlefield Park (est. 1940).
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 to alleged disobedience on the part of Fitz-John PorterPorter, Fitz-John,
1822–1901, Union general in the American Civil War, b. Portsmouth, N.H.; nephew of David Porter. He saw service in the Mexican War and was an instructor at West Point (1849–55).
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. Removed from command, Pope later campaigned against the Sioux. He commanded (1870–83) the Dept. of the Missouri.


See study by R. N. Ellis (1970).

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Pope, John

(1822–92) soldier; born in Louisville, Ky. A West Point graduate (1842) and Mexican War veteran, he did valuable survey work with the Army topographical engineers in the Southwest and West. Staying with the Union, he led the Army of the Mississippi in a campaign that opened the great river nearly to Memphis (1862). This success, plus the siege of Corinth, brought him to the attention of President Lincoln, who promoted Pope to command the Army of Virginia. He alienated some of his subordinates by his famous address (July 1862)—in which he implied that the Union forces in the East had not been aggressive enough—and he inspired some mockery when, asked where his headquarters would be, he replied, "In the saddle." His failures after the peninsular campaign and at Second Bull Run (August 1862), precipitated his replacement by Gen. George McClellan. Pope never again held a field command, even though he remained in the army until 1886.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
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