Gregory IX

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Gregory IX,

1143?–1241, pope (1227–41), an Italian named Ugolino di Segni, b. Anagni; successor of Honorius IIIHonorius III,
d. 1227, pope (1216–27), a Roman named Cencio Savelli; successor of Innocent III. He was created cardinal in 1197 and was an able administrator of the papal treasury.
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. As cardinal under his uncle, Innocent IIIInnocent III,
b. 1160 or 1161, d. 1216, pope (1198–1216), an Italian, b. Anagni, named Lotario di Segni; successor of Celestine III. Innocent III was succeeded by Honorius III.
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, he became, at St. Francis' request, the first cardinal protector of the Franciscans. About 84 when he was elected, he was a vigorous pope despite his age. He immediately commanded Holy Roman Emperor Frederick IIFrederick II,
1194–1250, Holy Roman emperor (1220–50) and German king (1212–20), king of Sicily (1197–1250), and king of Jerusalem (1229–50), son of Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI and of Constance, heiress of Sicily.
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 to keep his vow to go on crusade and excommunicated (1227) him when he delayed. The imperialists in Rome forced (1228) the pope into exile until 1230, when emperor and pope were reconciled. Five or six years later the struggle broke out again, this time over Italian liberties. Gregory again excommunicated (1239) Frederick and ordered his dethronement. Frederick prevented circulation of the bulls in Germany and blocked a general council summoned by Gregory. Gregory died at 98 when Frederick was about to attack the city. He was succeeded by Celestine IV. Gregory ordered the first complete and authoritative collection of papal decretals, the Corpus Iuris Canonici, which remained a fundamental source of canon law until the promulagtion of the Codex Iuris Canonici in 1917. Gregory IX organized (1233) the InquisitionInquisition
, tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church established for the investigation of heresy. The Medieval Inquisition

In the early Middle Ages investigation of heresy was a duty of the bishops.
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 and gave special responsibility for it to the Dominicans.
References in periodicals archive ?
By 1234, Pope Gregory IX had declared that no person could legitimately be canonized without the authority of the pope.
From 1230 onwards, Pope Gregory IX and later popes supported the conquest, colonisation and conversion of the pagan Prussians by granting crusading indulgences to lay participants, by which remission of sins was offered in return for military service.
Student Anthony Zonfrell, 20, couldn't believe his eyes when he visited the Vatican City and saw a fresco by Raphael Sylvester with Pope Gregory IX in it.
It depicts Pope Gregory IX approving the Vatical Decretals - with a spitting image of Stallone looking on.
Pope Gregory IX named him to the College of Cardinals in 1239.
It was Pope Gregory IX, in conjunction with the canonization of St.
A few years later the vexatious case was taken to Rome for the first time but Pope Gregory IX threw it back to the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Late in 1234 Pope Gregory IX, having no faith in the truce in the East negotiated by Frederick II, launched a Crusade to the Holy Land.
54] In an alternative version of history, favored by historians from the eighteenth century onwards, the foundation of the convent can be dated to 1224 and was the result of the machinations of Ugolino, bishop of Ostia, later Pope Gregory IX (1227-1241); the emperor was Frederick II and the doge was Pietro rather than Sebastiano Ziani.
The Inquisition was an inquiry court system established by Pope Gregory IX in 1231 to investigate possible heresy as well as to raise more money for the church.
The Inquisition was begun by Pope Gregory IX in Italy in 1231.
The Papal Inquisition was established in 1231 by Pope Gregory IX.