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1810–1903, pope (1878–1903), an Italian (b. Carpineto, E of Rome) named Gioacchino Pecci; successor of Pius IXPius IX,
1792–1878, pope (1846–78), an Italian named Giovanni M. Mastai-Ferretti, b. Senigallia; successor of Gregory XVI. He was cardinal and bishop of Imola when elected pope.
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. Ordained in 1837, he earned an excellent reputation as archbishop of Perugia (1846–77), and was created cardinal in 1853. Leo's election brought a turn in the course of the papacypapacy
, office of the pope, head of the Roman Catholic Church. He is pope by reason of being bishop of Rome and thus, according to Roman Catholic belief, successor in the see of Rome (the Holy See) to its first bishop, St. Peter.
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; he was abreast of the times and tried, especially by preaching to the whole church, in encyclical letters, to form Roman Catholic attitudes appropriate to living in the modern world. His influence was increased by the length of his reign; thus he was able to furnish the college of cardinals with an unusual number of excellent men (including John Henry NewmanNewman, John Henry,
1801–90, English churchman, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, one of the founders of the Oxford movement, b. London. Early Life and Works
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 in 1879 and James Gibbons in 1886). By a combination of vigor and tact he ended the KulturkampfKulturkampf
[Ger.,=conflict of cultures], the conflict between the German government under Bismarck and the Roman Catholic Church. The promulgation (1870) of the dogma of the infallibility of the pope in matters of faith and morals within the church sparked the conflict; it
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 (1887). He tried repeatedly to bring French Roman Catholics to support the republic. In 1885 his encyclical Immortale Dei charted the course of Catholics as responsible citizens in modern secular, democratic states; he thus refuted both the French royalists' claim that they were especially good Catholics and the contention of French anti-Catholics that the church was committed to political reaction. The letter was a great vindication of Catholic democrats. With the anti-Catholic government of Italy there was no conciliation. Leo's program for society appeared in Rerum novarum (1891), an arraignment of capitalism that also showed the insufficiencies of Marxian socialism; it set up Catholic aims and ideals. (It was supplemented in Quadragesimo Anno [1931] of Pius XIPius XI,
1857–1939, pope (1922–39), an Italian named Achille Ratti, b. Desio, near Milan; successor of Benedict XV. Prepapal Career

Ratti's father was a silk manufacturer. He studied in Milan and at the Gregorian Univ., Rome, and was ordained in 1879.
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 and in Mater et Magistra [1961] of John XXIIIJohn XXIII, Saint,
1881–1963, pope (1958–63), an Italian (b. Sotto il Monte, near Bergamo) named Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; successor of Pius XII. He was of peasant stock.
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.) Leo met the intellectual attack on Christianity by advancing Thomism, with its insistence that there can be no conflict between science and faith; to this end he wrote Aeterni Patris (1879), declaring the philosophy of St. Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas, Saint
[Lat.,=from Aquino], 1225–74, Italian philosopher and theologian, Doctor of the Church, known as the Angelic Doctor, b. Rocca Secca (near Naples).
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 official and requiring its study; he also founded the institute of Thomistic philosophy at the Univ. of Louvain. He was profoundly interested in the advancement of learning. He opened the Vatican secret archives to all scholars, and he reminded Catholic historians that nothing but the whole truth must be found in their work. He encouraged Bible study and set up (1902) the permanent Biblical Commission. He sponsored a number of faculties and universities, including the Catholic Univ. at Washington, D.C. For sheer productivity Leo surpassed all his predecessors in modern times. He was succeeded by Pius XPius X, Saint,
1835–1914, pope (1903–14), an Italian named Giuseppe Sarto, b. near Treviso; successor of Leo XIII and predecessor of Benedict XV. Ordained in 1858, he became bishop of Mantua (1884), a cardinal (1893), and patriarch of Venice (1893).
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See biography by K. K. Burton (1962); studies by L. P. Wallace (1966) and J. Watzlawik (1966); E. Gilson, ed., The Church Speaks to the Modern World (tr. 1954; con aining nine encyclicals of Pope Leo XIII); E. T. Gargan, ed., Leo XIII and the Modern World (1961).


original name Gioacchino Pecci. 1810--1903, pope (1878--1903). His many important encyclicals include Rerum novarum (1891) on the need for Roman Catholics to take action on various social problems
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3) Rerum novarum: Encyclical Letter on the Condition of the Working Classes, by Pope Leo XIII, May 15, 1891, in a New Advent translation copyrighted in 2007 by Kevin Knight; available at http:// www.
On December 28, 1878, for example, Leo XIII's encyclical Quod Apostolici Muneris (On Socialism) condemned the "deadly plague" of socialism; his Immortale Dei: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on the Christian Constitution of States of November 1, 1885, reinforced the Catholic teaching that the state, properly arranged, is meant to be managed in accordance with Catholic social thought; and his January 10, 1890, encyclical Sapientiae Christianae: Encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Christians as Citizens reaffirmed the infallibility of the pope when making pronouncements touching upon the dogmas of the Catholic Church.
6) Indeed, despite making that statement, elsewhere even Pope Leo XIII did not say that private property was absolute.
Among the most unusual documents is a letter written on birch bark from the chief of the Ojibwa Native American tribe to pope Leo XIII in the 19th century, calling him: "Grand Master of Prayers, who makes functions of Jesus.
Jose Perez, a city resident and member of Local 1199, Service Employees International Union, received perhaps one of the more enthusiastic ovations during the breakfast when he was given the labor group's Pope Leo XIII Award.
The passing of Pope Leo XIII in July 1903 and the election of Pope Pius X temporarily delayed work in the Sancta Sanctorum, but in 1905 Hartmann Grisar initiated what would become a long and difficult process of studying, photographing, and publishing the relics and reliquaries of the chapel.
CUA, founded in 1887 by the United States Catholic bishops with the support of Pope Leo XIII, as a graduate research center just north of Capitol Hill, is now home to 12 schools and 21 research facilities and claims to be the only American university with ecclesiastical faculties granting canonical degrees in three disciplines.
Pope Leo XIII purportedly used to carry a hip flask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and he awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani, known as the world's first cocaine millionaire.
One of the most unusual documents is a letter written on birch bark in 1887 by the Ojibwe Indians of Ontario, Canada, to Pope Leo XIII.
Wade, Pope Leo XIII and Abraham Lincoln on citizenship and statesmanship, and rejuvenating the Catholic Church as a prelude to rejuvenating American culture.
After her second attempt her father took Thrse on a pilgrimage to Rome, where she begged Pope Leo XIII, to allow her to join.
n He played a major role in the Oxford Movement to bring the Church of England back to its Catholic roots n He brought the Oratory of St Philip Neri to England, was the first Rector of the Catholic University in Dublin, and was made Cardinal by Pope Leo XIII in 1879.