porter

(redirected from Porters)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal.
Related to Porters: hospital porters

Beer

, in the Bible
Beer (bēˈər), in the Bible. 1 Unidentified place, to which Gideon's son Jotham fled. 2 Unidentified place, E of the Dead Sea between the Arnon and the Jordan, where Israel camped and dug a well. The little song quoted is one of the oldest poetic pieces in the Bible.

beer

, alcoholic beverage

beer, alcoholic beverage made by brewing and fermenting cereals, especially malted barley, usually with the addition of hops as a flavoring agent and stabilizer. One of the oldest of alcoholic beverages (there is archaeological evidence dating to c.3000 B.C.), beer was well known in ancient Egypt, where it may have been made from bread. At first brewed chiefly in the household and monastery, it became in late medieval times a commercial product and is now made by large-scale manufacture in almost every industrialized country, especially Great Britain, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the United States.

Although British, European, and American beers can differ markedly in flavor and content, brewing processes are similar. A mash, prepared from crushed malt (usually barley), water, and, often, cereal adjuncts such as rice and corn, is heated and rotated in the mash tun to dissolve the solids and permit the malt enzymes to convert the starch into sugar. The solution, called wort, is drained into a copper vessel, where it is boiled with the hops (which provide beer with its bitter flavor), then run off for cooling and settling. After cooling, it is transferred to fermenting vessels where yeast is added, converting the sugar into alcohol. Modern beers, typically lighter than ancient, contain about 3% to 6% alcohol.

Beers fall into two broad categories. Ales are made with yeast that ferments more quickly at warmer temperatures and tends to rise to the surface. Lagers use yeast that ferments more slowly at cooler temperatures and tends to settle, and they are aged at cold temperatures for weeks or months, hence the name [Ger., Lager=storage place]. Most major American beers are lagers; many are Bohemian Pilsners, a golden-hued lager. Bock beer, said to take its name from Einbeck, Prussia, where it was first made, is a heavier, usually darker lager. Pale ale is generally a light to dark amber, strongly hopped beer. Porter is a strong, dark ale brewed with the addition of roasted malt to give flavor and color. Stout, an ale which is darker and maltier than porter, has a more pronounced hop aroma and may attain an alcoholic content of 6% to 7%. Light, or low-calorie, beer is lower in alcohol content. Ice beer is a higher-alcohol beer produced by chilling below 32℉ (0℃) and filtering out the ice crystals that form.

In the 1980s, consumer dissatisfaction with the taste and choice offered by major breweries led to the growth of more traditional “craft” breweries and microbreweries—firms that produce fewer than 15,000 barrels annually—especially in the United States. By 2010 there were in the United States several dozen regional craft breweries, more than 600 microbreweries, and more than 1,000 brewpubs (a microbrewery that sells mainly through its own restaurant or bar).

Bibliography

See G. Oliver, ed., The Oxford Companion to Beer (2011).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

porter

1
US and Canadian a railway employee who waits on passengers, esp in a sleeper

porter

2
RC Church a person ordained to what was formerly the lowest in rank of the minor orders

porter

3
Brit a dark sweet ale brewed from black malt

Porter

1. Cole. 1893--1964, US composer and lyricist of musical comedies. His most popular songs include Night and Day and Let's do It
2. George, Baron Porter of Luddenham. 1920--2002, British chemist, who shared a Nobel prize for chemistry in 1967 for his work on flash photolysis
3. Katherine Anne. 1890--1980, US short-story writer and novelist. Her best-known collections of stories are Flowering Judas (1930) and Pale Horse, Pale Rider (1939)
4. Peter. born 1929, Australian poet, living in Britain
5. Rodney Robert. 1917--85, British biochemist: shared the Nobel prize for physiology or medicine 1972 for determining the structure of an antibody
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in classic literature ?
The porter, although half asleep from the wine he had drunk, heard the words, and without moving cried angrily to the Calender, "Sit down and mind your own business.
As to the porter, she requested him to come and help her and her sister.
She next went over to the door of a closet and signed to the porter to follow her.
The porter did as he was bid, but as he led the dog to Zobeida it uttered piercing howls, and gazed up at her with looks of entreaty.
They then turned to the porter to see if he could explain the mystery, but the porter was no wiser than they were themselves.
But once in London Jane Porter was no more tractable than she had been in Baltimore.
I recall one family from your own city, Miss Strong, whom I liked particularly--Professor Porter and his daughter."
He had never seen a white man or woman until Professor Porter and his party were marooned on the coast right at the threshold of his tiny cabin.
The sailor jerked out his weapon and leveled it at Clayton's back, Miss Porter screamed a warning, and a long, metal- shod spear shot like a bolt from above and passed entirely through the right shoulder of the rat-faced man.
"Who could it have been?" whispered Jane Porter, and the young man turned to see her standing, wide-eyed and wondering, close beside him.
"What's to be done, Miss Porter?" continued the young man, his face clouded by a frown of worry and indecision.
Porter firmly by the arm and hurried the weakly protesting old gentleman off in the direction of Cape Town, fifteen hundred miles to the south.