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(1) The merchants’ and artisans’ quarter, initially located outside the fortified section of Russian feudal cities. The posad was formed as a result of the development of the social division of labor, which led to the separation of crafts and agriculture, and as a result of the concentration of merchants and artisans in the cities (seeCITY: Historical survey of the development of the city). Initially these sections of cities were called podoly (“the flats”), since they were usually situated below the city fortress; this fortress, built on an elevated site, contained the residence of the feudal government and the households of the feudal lords. Beginning in the late 12th and 13th centuries, the term was replaced by posad.

From the 15th to the 17th century the population of merchants and artisans, called posadskie liudi, constituted one of the tax-paying classes of the Russian state, and the land on which the posad was located was considered to be the property of the supreme feudal state. In the 16th and 17th centuries private feudal estates within the posad, the “white” slobody (tax-exempt settlements) and households, were abolished in the process of posad reform.

The posady of large cities comprised the successively smaller subdivisions of the sloboda, sotnia, and polusotnia. As the posady grew in importance, walls were built surrounding them. The largest cities, such as Moscow, Novgorod, and Pskov, used stone for these walls; other cities used wood.

(2) In the 17th and 18th centuries, a commercial and industrial center, originally built without a fortress but considered to be a city; its population was included in the class of posadskie liudi

The above meanings of the term posad gradually disappeared as a result of Russian urban reforms carried out in the 1700’s, especially those of the last quarter of the century. The term posad was retained from the end of the 18th to the early 20th century for certain urban-type settlements.


References in periodicals archive ?
The festival took place in Pavlovsky Posad from February 7- 11.
Poco despues, el hermano de Mamontov fundo un taller de juguetes para ninos en la ciudad de Serguiev Posad.
Moscow, Rabi'I 23, 1433, Feb 15, 2012, SPA -- A smoke pellet has been thrown through the window of the tax inspection building in the town of Sergiyev Posad outside of Moscow.
Inspired: Andrew Graham Dixon at the Trinity Lavra of St Sergii in the town of Sergiev Posad, (a Lavra is the highest rank of Orthodox monastery).
The new facility at Pavlovski Posad, 60 kilometers east of Moscow, has an annual production capacity of 6,000 tons of paints including basecoats and clearcoats.
It rang out over a crowd of thousands of faithful at the Trinity St Sergius monastery in Sergiyev Posad,northeast of Moscow.
El furor fue tal que en la poblacion de Serguiev Posad, a 73 kilometros de Moscu, se establecieron decenas de talleres dedicados casi exclusivamente a producir matrioshkas, las primeras munecas, muy cabezonas tenian un aire primitivo pero muy insinuante y fueron un rotundo exito en la Exposicion Mundial de Paris de 1900.
The women were on a pilgrimage to Sergiyev Posad, the site of an ancient monastery considered the religious heart of Russia.
JSC ZLKZ, located in the Sergiev Posad, Moscow region, is owned by the MAIR Industrial Group, a large steel scrap processors.
Open competition: preparation of documentation for the planning of the territory for the construction of an entrance to the facility for waste management in the sergiev posad municipal district of the moscow region