vertigo

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Related to Positional vertigo: Benign positional vertigo, Epley maneuver

vertigo

(vûr`tĭgō), sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant difficulty in maintaining equilibrium. True vertigo, as distinguished from faintness, lightheadedness, and other forms of dizziness, occurs as a result of a disturbance of some part of the body's balancing mechanism, located in the inner ear (e.g., vestibule, semicircular canals, auditory nerves). Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), the most common kind, is the result of the displacement some of the calcium carbonate crystals (otoconia) from a fluid-filled cavity (the utricle) in the labyrinth of the ear into the semicircular canals, where they interfere with normal fluid movement. In many cases, BPPV may be treated by maneuvers designed to reposition the crystals that are easily done by a health-care provider. Labyrinthitis, or infection and irritation of the middle and inner ear, also is a common cause of vertigo, as is Ménière's diseaseMénière's syndrome
, disorder of the inner ear characterized by recurrent episodes of loss of balance combined with deafness and a ringing sensation. It was first described by the French otologist Prosper Ménière, in 1861.
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. Correction or elimination of the mechanical, infectious, toxic, or environmental factors underlying the disturbance is essential for permanent relief.

Vertigo

 

a sensation of disturbance of body balance and seeming rotation of surrounding objects. In the ontogeny of a human being a certain definite conception of the individual’s interrelationship with surrounding objects (space) is formed; the principal role in this is played by the information that enters the central nervous system from the vestibular apparatus, the organs of sight, and nerve endings that receive deep and cutaneous responses. When there is a disturbance in the transmission or perception of this information, vertigo occurs. Vertigo may sometimes arise in healthy persons, for example when there is extreme or prolonged stimulation of the vestibular apparatus (movement with considerable linear or angular acceleration, swinging, etc.), as a result of intensive rhythmic stimulation of the receptors of the eyeballs (prolonged fixation of the gaze on a moving object), or with absence in surrounding space of accustomed points that determine space orientation (at high altitudes).

Vertigo often arises in certain diseased conditions, such as diseases of the vestibular analysor (labyrinth, audio-vestibular nerve, vestibular nuclei of the brain stem, supranuclear structures, cortex, and, above all, areas of the temporal-parietooccipital junction) and of the visual and oculomotor apparatus, as well as in pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system, and other organs. The causes of affection of the vestibular analysor may be inflammatory or noninflammatory diseases of the labyrinth; otosclerosis; Ménière’s disease; infectious, toxic, or traumatic influences on the audio-vestibular nerve; disturbances in circulation of cerebrospinal fluid; vascular, inflammatory, toxic, oncological, and parasitic brain diseases; and, more rarely, functional diseases of the nervous system. Vertigo is usually accompanied by nausea, vomiting, slow pulse, pallor, change in arterial pressure, and the appearance of nystagmus. Treatment consists of removal of the causes; acetyl-cholinolytic preparations, vitamin B6, and therapeutic exercises are prescribed.

REFERENCES

Min’kovskii, A. Kh. “Golovokruzhenie.” In Problemy labirintologii. Cheliabinsk, 1966.
Khechinashvili, S. N. “Golovokruzhenie.” Klinicheskaia meditsina, 1964, vol. 42, no. 9.
Piquet, J., and J. J. Piquet. Les Vertiges. Paris, 1965.

V. A. KARLOV

vertigo

[′vərd·ə‚gō]
(medicine)
The sensation that the outer world is revolving about the patient (objective vertigo) or that the patient is moving in space (subjective vertigo).

vertigo

A type of spatial disorientation caused by the physical senses sending conflicting signals to the brain. The eyes send the signal that the aircraft is in a certain attitude, while the inner ear indicates a different attitude—hence, the confusion. The situation can be dangerous when flying in clouds, at night, and in poor visibility conditions. The defense lies in concentration on and confidence in flight instruments.

vertigo

Pathol a sensation of dizziness or abnormal motion resulting from a disorder of the sense of balance
References in periodicals archive ?
In the midst of the renewed interest in BPPV and in light of its successful treatment by repositioning maneuvers, this case serves as a reminder that central causes of positional vertigo do exist.
Presentation and outcome of post-traumatic benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Diagnosis and management of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo has various etiologies, but hormonal abnormalities or hormonal changes as predisposing factors are not clarifed sufficiently in the literature.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a disorder of peripheral vestibular system and is commonly encountered in otolaryngology clinics1.
Clinical characteristics and treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo after traumatic brain injury.
In VM, attacks of positional vertigo last from a few hours to several days and often occur several times per month or year while BPPV attacks last from several seconds to a few minutes and generally appear over the course of a few weeks or months [12].
8 years (range 16-95) presenting with positional vertigo were recruited from a neurology department of Clinical Hospital of Constanta, to the investigation gait and possibility of influence with physical therapy.
Use the Dix-Hallpike procedure to diagnose benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
In many cases, a particle repositioning technique known as the Epley maneuver can cure benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Crystals--micropar-tides of calcium, called otoconia, that form in the balance canals of the inner ear--cause a condition called benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by mechanical dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear.