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An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that primarily serves to indicate either grammatical possession or the contraction of two words. It can also sometimes be used to pluralize irregular nouns, such as single letters, abbreviations, and single-digit numbers.
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see punctuationpunctuation
[Lat.,=point], the use of special signs in writing to clarify how words are used; the term also refers to the signs themselves. In every language, besides the sounds of the words that are strung together there are other features, such as tone, accent, and pauses,
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; abbreviationabbreviation,
in writing, arbitrary shortening of a word, usually by cutting off letters from the end, as in U.S. and Gen. (General). Contraction serves the same purpose but is understood strictly to be the shortening of a word by cutting out letters in the middle, the omission
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figure of speech in which an absent person, a personified inanimate being, or an abstraction is addressed as though present. The term is derived from a Greek word meaning "a turning away," and this sense is maintained when a narrative or dramatic thread is broken in order to digress by speaking directly to someone not there, e.g., "Envy, be silent and attend!"—Alexander Pope, "On a Certain Lady at Court."
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



comma written above the line, used in writing for various functions: (1) In French, Italian, English, and other languages the apostrophe is used to indicate the omission of a vowel (the French I’homme instead of le homme, the English “don’t” instead of “do not,” and so on).

(2) In the orthography of the Nenets language it is used to indicate glottal stops.

(3) The apostrophe is used in transcription to convey glottal stops (in Semitic and other languages), to indicate soft consonants, and so on.

(4) In Russian writing it is used in places where foreign languages use apostrophes in proper names (Jeanne d’Arc, O’Casey); in the 1920’s and 1930’s the apostrophe was also used in place of the “hard sign” Ъ (pod’ezd instead of podЪezd).



a word or group of words naming the person or object to which speech is addressed. Apostrophe may be used within or outside a sentence. It is not bound grammatically to the other parts of a sentence. Apostrophe is widely used in literary language to convey dialogue. For example:

(Famusov:) “Sergei Sergeich, can this be you!”

A. S. Griboedov, Woe From Wit

It is also used in the speech of the narrator to address an individual. For example:

“And you, exile,” I thought, “weep on your vast, free steppes.”

M. Iu. Lermontov, Bela

Or it may be used to address an inanimate object:

“Loosen up, shoulder! Swing, arm!

You, wind, blow in the face from afternoon on!”

A. V. Kol’tsov, “The Mower”

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


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References in periodicals archive ?
Finally, it might be of interest to all concerned to note that, in the New English Bible, the possessive apostrophe for Jesus is s's as in, "he fell at Jesus's knees,".
Britain has never made such a decision, although it appears from Ordnance Survey maps that the possessive apostrophe has almost completely disappeared since the 1950s.
you will see the possessive apostrophe has been painted out.
Australia's reasoning for dropping the possessive apostrophe is relevant, since they argued that with the emergency services using computer databases there was a need for nationwide consistency.
The Gazetteer of British Place Names shows that few place names in Britain have the possessive apostrophe.
The cost of re-introducing the possessive apostrophe across Birmingham would be enormous.
The possessive apostrophe is not grammatically correct.
"Some never used possessive apostrophes, and there were many apostrophes used in non-possessive plurals - 'the cows rectum' and 'the harem's of seals'.
Finally, commas and possessive apostrophes run amok and numerous sentences are excruciatingly long, while others end seemingly unfinished.
There are numerous missing possessive apostrophes, misspellings, and minor grammatical errors that might lead one to doubt the accuracy of the bibliographic information.
d , o sy e In Year 2: They will be taught contractions (I'm, isn't), homophones (their, s r, eege tasfesnt there, they're) and possessive apostrophes, as well as the spelling of words including fridge and thumb.
I'm so dull that the incorrect use of possessive apostrophes can drive me to a cruel rage.