The first phase (preadaptation) and the last phase (postadaptation) were identical and each consisted of 100 trials to assess normal saccade gain to a target step under open-loop conditions.
In each trial during the preadaptation and postadaptation phases, the target spot randomly stepped left or right, initially from a central fixation position and subsequently from its previous target location on successive trials.
In addition, there were 25 interleaved trials in which the target disappeared upon saccade detection identical to the pre- and postadaptation trials, and hence, there were no distractors presented in these trials.
The data presented here are the changes in the gain of the primary saccade during the pre- and postadaptation phases, which were the open-loop saccade periods before and after the attention distractor trials.
Each test condition consisted of three test periods, including baseline (1 min), adaptation period (7 min), and postadaptation period (2 min).
In contrast, a negative error indicated that the magnitude during the adaptation or postadaptation periods was smaller than during baseline.
To determine whether a particular resistance load condition induced an aftereffect, we compared the magnitude of the first stride during the postadaptation period and the baseline of each variable measured.
Aftereffect in Spatial and Temporal Gait Parameters During First Stride of Postadaptation Period: Loaded Leg
Of the physiologic measures, only skin conductance was a consistent indicator of adaptation and response to challenge substances postadaptation
. Results and discussion in this article are therefore restricted to this physiologic measure.
This robust postadaptation retention was present in all subjects in both groups and may suggest some form of STML (see "Discussion").
Also, none of the authors, except Kao and Ferris , investigated short-term (e.g., 48 hours) postadaptation aftereffects (retention), thereby limiting their scope in examining ML at the LL.
The robust postadaptation aftereffects (retention) in all the motor performance gains at 48 hours may suggest some form of rapid, short-term ankle ML, but its exact nature or underlying mechanism (e.g., blending of discrete submovements as recovery occurs ) cannot be ascertained unless a longer time window is explored.