osteoporosis

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osteoporosis

(ŏs'tēō'pərō`sĭs), disorder in which the normal replenishment of old bone tissue is severely disrupted, resulting in weakened bones and increased risk of fracture; osteopenia results when bone-mass loss is significant but not as severe as in osteoporosis. Although osteoporosis can occur in anyone, it is most common in thin white women after menopausemenopause
or climacteric
, transitional phase in a woman's life when the ovaries stop releasing eggs, ovarian production of estrogen and other hormones tapers off, and menstruation ceases.
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.

Bone mass is typically at its greatest during a person's mid-twenties; after that point there is a gradual reduction in bone mass as bone is not replenished as quickly as it is resorbed. In postmenopausal women the production of estrogenestrogen
, any one of a group of hormones synthesized by the reproductive organs and adrenal glands in females and, in lesser quantities, in males. The estrogens cause the thickening of the lining of the uterus and vagina in the early phase of the ovulatory, or menstrual, cycle
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, a hormonehormone,
secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue.
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 that helps maintain the levels of calcium and other minerals necessary for normal bone regeneration, drops off dramatically, resulting in an accelerated loss of bone mass of up to 3% per year over a period of five to seven years. Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a sedentary lifestyle increase the risk of bone-mass loss; a diet high in protein and sodium also speed calcium loss. The disorder also has a genetic component. A vitamin D receptor gene that affects calcium uptake and bone density has been identified, and the different forms of this gene appear to correlate with differences in levels of bone density among osteoporosis patients.

Osteoporosis has no early symptoms and is usually not diagnosed until a fracture occurs, typically in the hip, spine, or wrist. A diagnostic bone density test is thus recommended as a preventive measure for women at high risk. Treatment can slow the process or prevent further bone loss. Estrogen replacement therapy for postmenopausal women is effective but has potential side effects. Calcitonin, a thyroid hormone, is administered in some cases. Nonhormonal drugs for the treatment of osteoporosis include alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel), bisphosphonates that decrease bone resorption, and raloxifene (Evista), a selective estrogen receptor modulator that can increase bone mineral density. Teriparatide (Forteo), which consists of the biologically active region of human parathyroid hormone, stimulates the activity of osteoblasts, the specialized cells that form new bone. Dietary and supplemental calcium and vitamin D are usually recommended for people at risk, but a seven-year study of more than 36,000 women over 50 that was released in 2006 found that supplements conferred little benefit. Exercise, including weight training, has been found to strengthen bones directly and to improve muscle strength and balance and thus minimize the chance of falls.

Bibliography

See M. Hegsted, Advances in Nutrition Research, Vol. 9: Nutrition and Osteoporosis (1994).

Osteoporosis

 

a thinning of the cancellous and cortical layers of bone as a result of partial bone resorption. Osteoporosis is not an independent disease but a condition that results from local or systemic metabolic disorders. It often occurs in osteomyelitis, Itsenko-Cushing’s disease, inflammatory diseases of the joints, and traumas—especially fractures—in which major blood vessels and nerves are injured. Osteoporosis also frequently arises with frostbite, burns, nervous-system lesions (including poliomyelitis), and toxic conditions (for example, the late stages of cancer). It can arise as a side effect of prednisolone treatment.

Osteoporosis can be detected only by roentgenography. It can be local, regional, disseminated, or systemic and arises in spots or uniform patches. Osteoporosis usually subsides once the underlying disease is cured but does not completely disappear until the function of the affected portion is completely restored. Anabolic hormones are used to treat the disease.

osteoporosis

[¦äs·tē·ō·pə′rō·səs]
(medicine)
Deossification with absolute decrease in bone tissue, resulting in enlargement of marrow and Haversian spaces, decreased thickness of cortex and trabeculae, and structural weakness.

osteoporosis

porosity and brittleness of the bones due to loss of calcium from the bone matrix
References in periodicals archive ?
[34] also suggested a strong negative association between the balance scores and the back extensor and hip flexor muscle strengths in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, compared to healthy controls, as assessed by the TUG test and the Berg Balance Scale.
The results of this study in Chinese postmenopausal females not affected by diabetes showed that NLR level was higher in the postmenopausal osteoporosis group (Pless than 0.05).
Accordingly, the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and activation would be a therapeutic strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Ibandronate (Boniva) is another oral (FDA-approved for prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis) and intravenous (IV) (FDA-approved for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis) BP preparation, which is dosed at monthly intervals orally (150 mg) and 3-month intervals intravenously (3 mg).
(29.) Assessment of fracture risk and its application to screening for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Report of a WHO Study Group.
This comprehensive literature review demonstrates the possible association between postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease: postmenopausal women with low systemic BMD tended to have greater loss of alveolar bone and clinical attachment.
Evaluation of a Fully Automated Serum Assay for Total N-Terminal Propeptide of Type I Collagen in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Clin Chem 2008; 54 (i):1188-196.
(18) It is usually reserved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in women who are not able to tolerate other osteoporosis medications.
The effects of strontium ranelate on the risk of vertebral fractures in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Eng J Med.2004;350:459-469.
A group of 65 subjects with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age 63.1 years; T-score < -2.5 measured by the Dexa technique), were randomized into 2 groups: an experimental group (EG) with 32 subjects (mean age, 62.9[+ or -]2.1) and a control group (CG) with 33 subjects (mean age 63.9 [+ or -]1.5).
Finally, it is important to recognize the compelling evidence showing that treating postmenopausal osteoporosis can significantly reduce fracture risk.
SANDIEGO - A novel once-daily oral calcitonin tablet hit all of its efficacy and safety end points in a phase III clinical trial for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.