Podesta

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Podesta

 

the highest administrator in many city-communes in Italy from the 12th to the early 16th century; head of the executive and the judiciary. A podesta was elected for a term of six months to one year and was usually a citizen of another city. During the second half of the 12th century, Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa appropriated the right to appoint the podesta, making the podesta a representative of imperial power. After the battle of Legnano in 1176, however, the cities again secured the right to elect the podesta.

In the mid-13th century, the successful struggle of the popolani (townspeople) against the nòbili (noblemen residing in the city) led to a weakening of the podesta’s power and a strengthening of the capitani del popolo (commune heads) in Bologna, Florence, and many other cities. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the podesta retained only judicial functions and in the early 16th century was replaced by a board of judges. In Venice, Genoa, Florence, and other large medieval Italian city-states, the rulers of cities were also called podestas in the areas they controlled; they were appointed by the central government.

In 1926 a supreme administrative position called podesta was introduced in the cities of Fascist Italy, with appointments made by the government. After the Fascist regime collapsed, the position was abolished (January 1946).

V. I. RUTENBURG

References in periodicals archive ?
Ya en 1599 la teoria del poder directo aparecia como no ortodoxa, pues el partidario de la teocracia Alessandro Carriero, De potestate romani pontificis adversus impios politicos (Padova, 1599) se incluyo en el Index.
A proposito, interpreta Bayona que Terrena se desmarca explicitamente de la doctrina de la plenitudo potestatis, que propugnaba el dominio papal sobre todos los bienes temporales y era la tesis que habia defendido Egidio Romano (1961) y sostenia entonces Agustin Triunfo en la Summa de ecclesiastica potestate (1326) (Augustinus Triumphus Anconitanus, Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, 1584 apud Bayona, 2015).
En distintas partes de su obra, principalmente en el tratado De regia potestate, aparecen claramente establecidos los actos o negocios en los cuales el gobernante necesitaba tener el consentimiento de la comunidad para llevarlos a cabo o que, en su defecto, pecaria y la accion no tendria valor juridico.
65) In his chapter on the history of poetics (De ui ac uaria potestate metrorum), Hrabanus makes the vague promise that he will also discuss poetic meters: "Sed de his plenius in sequentibus, cum de speciebus metrorum scripserimus, dicemus" [But we shall discuss this at greater length in the following part when we have written on the types of meter].
117) "Et ideo dominus a principio eis regem non instituit cum plena potestate, sed iudicem et gubernatorem in eorum custodiam.
En efecto, el canon 1141 del actual codigo de derecho canonico (que vuelve el canon 1118 del Codigo anterior), establece que el matrimonio valido y consumado no podra ser disuelto "nada humana potestate, nullaquae causa, praeterquam morte"; por ello resulta evidente que no pueda ser admitido contraer sucesivas bodas a quien no demuestre de manera cierta y positiva, el fallecimiento del otro conyuge.
12) "Virgo autem vestalis, simul et capta atque in atrium Vestae deducta etpontificibus tradita est, eo statim tempore sine emancipatione ac sine capitis minutione e patris potestate exit et ius testamenti faciundi adipiscitur".
Rem publicam ex mea potestate in senatus populique Romani arbitrium transtuli, <<transferi los asuntos publicos, de mi potestad, a la decision del Senado y del Pueblo Romano[mucho mayor que], declaro en Roma el fundador del regimen que llamamos Imperio * (1).
Obviamente, por lo antedicho, el tratado De ecclesiastica potestate (1301) de Egidio Romano, constituye la formulacion mas radical de la primacia papal, a la que identifica con una doctrina absolutista de la plenitudo potestatis elaborada sobre una base filosofica neoplatonica.
94) Et homines de Varrio ita habuerunt fuero ut vadant cum illa potestate de Berveia ad venato vel ad pignora aut montatico prendere de baccas vel de porcis.
Desde 455 a 376 existen los Tribuni Militum Consulari Potestate que reemplazan temporalmente a los consules, magistratura que ya estaba abierta a los plebeyos, y posteriormente las funciones de estos tribunos pasaran a los censores cuando se crea esta magistratura en 351 y a los pretores en 337.