Powdery Mildew


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Powdery Mildew: downy mildew

powdery mildew

[′pau̇d·ə·rē ′mil‚dü]
(mycology)
A fungus characterized by production of abundant powdery conidia on the host; a member of the family Erysiphaceae or the genus Oidium.
(plant pathology)
A plant disease caused by a powdery mildew fungus.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Powdery Mildew

 

any one parasitic fungus of the order Erysiphales (Perisporiales) of the class Ascomycetes. The multicellular mycelium usually develops ectotrophically, on the surface of various plant organs. It rarely develops endotrophically, in the cells of leaf parenchyma, or mesophyll (in the genera Leveillula, Phyllactinia). The fungi feed by means of special outgrowths of the mycelium, or haustoria. During the vegetative period, they reproduce asexually by means of conidia. The fruiting bodies, or cleistothecia, develop most often on aging mycelium; they are dark in color, lack stomata, and have hyphal processes (whose structure has species or generic specificity). The cleistothecia have one or more sacs (asci), which form as a result of the sexual process.

There are 20 genera of Erysiphales, including about 100 species. They prefer dry places and are especially abundant during a dry summer. The mycelium forms a white coating on the green parts of a number of wild and cultivated grains, causing the disease powdery mildew. Species of fungi that cause powdery mildew of oak, grape, hops, apple, and other plants are widely distributed.

M. A. BONDARTSEVA


Powdery Mildew

 

(also oidium disease), any one of a group of plant diseases caused by powdery-mildew fungi (Erysiphales). Powdery mildew usually appears at the beginning or middle of summer in the form of a powdery, cobwebby, or tomentose mealy-white film that spots leaves, shoots, stems, petioles, fruit stalks, and sometimes fruits. The film gradually spreads, covering most of the green organs, which become brownish with innumerable black spots. Diseased leaves and shoots become fragile and wither prematurely. The wood of trees and shrubs infected with powdery mildew does not mature; as a result, the plants freeze in the winter. Those shoots that remain alive exhibit poor growth in the next vegetative period. Sick fruits usually split; the flesh is exposed and quickly rots.

All the causative agents of powdery mildew are exoparasites of plants. Many powdery-mildew fungi are parasites of agricultural crops. The most harmful species are Uncinula necator, which parasitizes grapes; Sphaerotheca mors, which infests gooseberries; Erysiphe graminis, which parasitizes bread grains; Sphaerotheca pannosa forma persicae, which affects peaches; Erysiphe communis, which infests sugar beets; and Sphaerotheca pannosa forma rosae, which parasitizes roses.

Control measures include destroying affected plant residue, pruning and burning diseased shoots, deep autumn plowing, applying phosphorus and potassium fertilizers, using crop varieties that are more resistant to powdery mildew, and spraying or dusting plants with sulfur preparations or with dinocap (kara-thane). Sulfur preparations are not used on gooseberry, since they cause shedding of leaves. For control of powdery mildew on roses, sodium carbonate or a solution of green soap may be used.

REFERENCE

Golovin, P. N. Muchnistorosianye griby, parazitiruiushchie na kurturnykh i poleznykh rasteniiakh. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.

D. N. TETEREVNIKOVA-BABAIAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Moist, muggy conditions above ground and dry soil create ideal conditions for the spread of mildew, however, there are a number of chemicals available to control powdery mildew such as Fungus Fighter and Fungus Clear Ultra, though there is nothing much you can do about an attack on a mature Acer Crimson King or any other large tree specimen except to clear up and dispose of fallen leaves which may carry over fungal spores to next year.
They found that both bunch rot and powdery mildew caused nuanced changes in the composition of chemical aroma substances, changing the odor of the wines to the point at which the wines' aroma quality was significantly affected.
Once the mapping population and genetic mileposts are in place, researchers then measure the desired trait or phenotype (in this case, powdery mildew or downy mildew resistance) somehow and associate the trait with specific markers on the genetic map.
All the recommended package of practices was applied except protection for control of powdery mildew under natural filed condition.
Keywords: Wheat ear; Powdery mildew; Disease severities; Hyperspectral imaging
However, a little is known about the effects of temperature, relative humidity and wind speed on disease incidence of powdery mildew of pea under field conditions.
Open-pollinated 'Waltham' produces 4- to 5-pound fruits on rambling vines that are susceptible to powdery mildew. Fruit size varies a bit, but many gardeners report that they can get large and medium fruits from a single plant.
The indicative criteria to control barley brown spot and powdery mildew based on disease intensity are 3% foliar severity or 20% foliar incidence and 2-3% foliar severity, respectively (REUNIAO, 2011).
A few resistance genes against powdery mildew have been studiedinbarley, suchas mla [8], mlo [9], mlg [10], mlhb [11], and mlf [12].
Watch out for early signs of powdery mildew disease which could be rampant at this time of the year.
Remove leaves that look dusty, as this could herald powdery mildew. Peppers and aubergines are sensitive to temperature at night and are unlikely to develop further fruits at this stage, so focus on what you have by cutting down on watering and feeding and closing ventilation earlier on in the day to trap the heat inside.