Premature Birth

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Premature Birth


the premature ending of pregnancy, the birth of a premature infant. According to various statistics, 2.5 to 5–6 percent of all births are premature. There are various causes of premature birth. Some are associated with the fetus, and others with the mother. The causes include congenital defects in the development of the ovum, hydramnios, anomalies of placental attachment, improper fetal position, gestoses, previous abortions, multiple pregnancy, chronic and acute infections (brucellosis, toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, influenza, tonsillitis, viral hepatitis), inflammatory processes of the sexual organs, neoplasms, infantilism, and muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Neuroendocrine disorders (ovarian and thyroid functional disturbances, diabetes) can also cause premature birth. Women with diseases of the kidneys, liver, and cardiovascular and nervous systems often give birth prematurely.

Conservative treatment is directed toward removing the basic causes of the premature birth. Surgery is required when there is muscular insufficiency of the upper uterine cervix. Treatment is administered before and during pregnancy. Preventive and therapeutic measures are directed toward detecting and removing the basic causes of premature birth. Such measures consist primarily of prenatal care of both the mother and fetus.


Persianinov, L. S. “Profilaktika i lechenie pri nedonashivanii beremennosti.” In Zhenskaia konsul’tatsiia, 2nd ed. Minsk, 1962.
Konstantinov, V. I. “Nedonashivanie i perenashivanie beremennosti.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo po akusherstvu i ginekologii, vol. 3, book 1. Moscow, 1964.
Bodiazhina, V. I., A. I. Liubimova, and I. S. Rozovskii. Privychnyi vykidysh. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
Abortion can lead to a higher risk of future premature birth because a woman is more likely to develop cervical incompetence from the abortion.
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The experts said if costs for Scotland and Northern Ireland were added to the figures, then the cost of premature births in the UK would top pounds 1 billion a year.
Rates of low birthweight and premature birth were highest among black, poorly educated and unmarried mothers.
Premature birth is a growing problem in the United States, where the rate increased 27 percent between 1982 to 2002.
Except in Rao's work in Madras (4), miscarriage and premature birth were not separated, so they are described together.
BABY experts are calling on the Government to double its research funding into premature births and pregnancy complications.
Additionally, abortion plays a role in the incidence of premature birth, and the high rate of abortions in the United States likely adds to the nation's infant mortality rate.
As stated in The Role of Environmental Health Hazards in Premature Birth, researchers believe that preterm birth is increasing in some countries, but the extent to which it is increasing is not known.
A 1993 Australian study of 121,305 total births found the risk of an extremely premature birth (20-27 weeks gestational age) to be 60% higher for women with one previous abortion, 150% higher for those with two abortions, and 460% higher for women having three or more previous induced abortions - - compared to women with no previous pregnancies.
A recent report indicated that doctors may have discovered the first treatment ever proven to reduce the risk of premature birth in women with a high risk of having their babies too early.
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