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See also: Presidents of the United States (table)Presidents of the United States
President Political Party Dates in Office Vice President(s)
George Washington   1789–97 John Adams
John Adams Federalist 1797–1801 Thomas Jefferson
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in modern republics, the chief executive and, therefore, the highest officer in a government. Many nations of the world, including the United States, France, Germany, India, and the majority of Latin American nations, have a president as the official head of state. However, the actual power of the presidency varies considerably from country to country. In Germany the presidential power is relatively weak. True executive power rests with the chancellor, and all acts of the president must have his approval or the approval of one of his ministers. The presidential power in India is similarly subordinated to a cabinet of ministers and restricted primarily to ceremonial functions. By contrast, France (under the Fifth Republic), the United States, and some Latin American countries have given the office of the president considerable authority. In Latin America heads of state have not infrequently assumed dictatorial powers, while retaining the title president. The power of the French president is such that he may dissolve parliament at any time, although not more than once a year, and may veto parliamentary bills. He is commander in chief of the armed forces and possesses extraordinary emergency powers. In the United States, Article II of the Constitution provides for the office of the presidency, which is held for four-year terms and filled by election through the electoral collegeelectoral college,
in U.S. government, the body of electors that chooses the president and vice president. The Constitution, in Article 2, Section 1, provides: "Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the
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. The president is given full responsibility for the execution of the laws and is therefore the head of all executive agencies. With the consent of Congress he appoints cabinet members and any other executive officials he sees fit. As commander in chief of armed forces the president has control over the military, although Congress tried to limit his war-making power with the War Powers Act of 1973. He is also responsible for the conduct of foreign affairs, although his treaties and appointments must be approved by the Senate and his expenditures by the House of Representatives. To be eligible for the presidency one must be a native-born citizen, over 35 years old, and at least 14 years resident in the United States. The Twenty-second Amendment (1951) limits a president to two four-year terms. For a list of U.S. presidents, see Presidents of the United StatesPresidents of the United States
President Political Party Dates in Office Vice President(s)
George Washington   1789–97 John Adams
John Adams Federalist 1797–1801 Thomas Jefferson
..... Click the link for more information.
, table.


See M. Cunliffe, American Presidents and the Presidency (1972); L. Fisher, President and Congress (1972); F. I. Greenstein, Leadership in the Modern Presidency (1988); L. Fisher, Presidential War Power (1995); H. F. Graff, ed., The Presidents (2d ed., 1996).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(1) In many public, scholarly, and scientific establishments and in many organizations and the like, including international ones, the elected head—for example, the president of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the president of the International Council of Scientific Unions, the president of the International Academy of Astronautics, or the president of the Soviet-French Friendship Society.

(2) The head of state in countries with a republican form of government. In parliamentary republics, including Italy, India, the Federal Republic of Germany, Turkey, and Lebanon, the president is elected for a constitutionally defined term, either by the parliament or by a special collegium based in the parliament. In presidential republics the president is elected outside of parliament, either by direct elections, as in France, Panama, Paraguay, Colombia, Costa Rica, and Bolivia, or by indirect elections, as in the United States and Argentina.

In presidential republics the president has broad, real powers, since he combines the functions of head of state and head of government. The constitutions of parliamentary republics formally assign broad powers to the president, but in fact these powers are exercised by the prime minister. This arrangement is sometimes further strengthened by the institution of countersignature. In the socialist states of Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, and the People’s Democratic Republic of Korea, the head of state is also a president, elected by the highest representative bodies. The president of the Republic of Cuba is elected by the Council of Ministers.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about a president?

Dreaming about the chief of the company or the country suggests concerns about the status and security of one’s job or perhaps one’s opinion about the country’s leader.

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


1. the chief executive or head of state of a republic, esp of the US
2. (in the US) the chief executive officer of a company, corporation, etc.
3. the chief executive officer of certain establishments of higher education
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Presidant la ceremonie de cloture de cette 9e edition, le wali delegue de la circonscription de Timimoune, Aoune Mabrouk, s'est felicite du [beaucoup moins que] franc succes [beaucoup plus grand que] du festival, estimant que ceci traduit l'interet qu'accorde le public a ce legs plus que seculaire.
Presidant dimanche dernier au soir une reunion de l'executif de wilaya, le meme responsable a insiste sur une solution definitive pour alimenter les habitants de la ville en eau minerale de Saida sans les melanger aux eaux d'Ain Skhouna connues par leur salinite.
Presidant l'installation du bureau de wilaya de la CGEA, en presence d'operateurs locaux, Yousfi a estime [beaucoup moins que] imperatif [beaucoup plus grand que] pour les acteurs economiques et sociaux, en tant que partenaires de la tripartite, d'œuvrer inlassablement en faveur du dialogue social.
Presidant une rencontre regionale des cadres de l'administration douaniere dans le Sud du pays sur la strategie d'action douaniere sur le terrain et de coordination operationnelle, Bentahar a souligne l'importance d'une telle strategie visant a organiser l'action des differentes unites douanieres, notamment dans le domaine de la lutte contre la contrebande.
Presidant une reunion de l'executif consacree aux preparatifs de la rentree sociale, et des nouvelles orientations du Gouvernement aux walis, Djelaoui a assure qu'une [beaucoup moins que] forte dynamique [beaucoup plus grand que] sera insufflee a l'investissement dans la wilaya, au vu du potentiel qu'elle detient dans les domaines de l'agriculture, du tourisme et de l'industrie notamment.
Presidant l'ouverture d'un stage de formation de 27 tisserandes, au centre de valorisation des savoir-faire de la commune de M'daourouch, la ministre deleguee a exhorte ses responsables a [beaucoup moins que] multiplier ces initiatives qui constituent la raison d'etre de ces etablissements [beaucoup plus grand que] et un [beaucoup moins que] maillon vital pour le developpement du secteur [beaucoup plus grand que].