Calvin Coolidge

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Coolidge, Calvin,

1872–1933, 30th President of the United States (1923–29), b. Plymouth, Vt. John Calvin Coolidge was a graduate of Amherst College and was admitted to the bar in 1897. He practiced (1897–1919) law in Northampton, Mass., entered state politics as a Republican, and rose steadily in the party. He served (1910–11) as mayor of Northampton, was a member of the Massachusetts state senate from 1912 to 1915 (its president after 1914), and was (1916–19) lieutenant governor before serving (1919–21) as governor. Coolidge rose to national prominence when he used the militia to end the Boston police strike in 1919. In 1920 he was nominated as Republican candidate for the vice presidency and was elected with Warren G. Harding. After Harding died, Coolidge took (Aug. 3, 1923) the oath of office as President. Untouched by the scandals of the Harding administration, he was easily elected to a full term in 1924. His personal honesty and New England simplicity appealed to the American people, and his unquestioning faith in the conservative business values of laissez faire reflected the national mood. Coolidge's policies were aggressively pro-business. Through his appointees he transformed the Federal Trade Commission from an agency intended to regulate corporations into one dominated by big business. He twice vetoed (1927, 1928) the McNary-Haugen bill to aid agriculture and pocket-vetoed (1928) a bill for government operation of the Muscle Shoals hydroelectric plant. The presence in his cabinet of Herbert C. Hoover and Andrew W. Mellon added to the business tone of his administration, and Coolidge supported Mellon's program of tax cuts and economy in government. Through his public statements he encouraged the reckless stock market speculation of the late 1920s and left the nation unprepared for the economic collapse that followed. Coolidge chose not to seek renomination in 1928. After leaving office he retired to Northampton to write newspaper and magazine articles and his autobiography (1929, repr. 1989). As first lady, his wife, Grace A. Goodhue Coolidge, was much admired for her poise and charm. A selection of his press conferences was edited by H. H. Quint and R. H. Ferrell (1964).

Bibliography

See biographies by C. M. Fuess (1940), D. R. McCoy (1967, repr. 1988), J. Abels (1969), W. A. White (1938, repr. 1973), R. Sobel (1998), and A. Shlaes (2013).

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Coolidge, Calvin

 

Born July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vt; died Jan. 5, 1933, in Northampton, Mass. American political figure; lawyer by profession.

In 1918–19, Coolidge, a member of the Republican Party, served as governor of Massachusetts. From 1921 to 1923 he was vice-president and from 1923 to 1929, the 30th president of the USA. (He became president after the death of President W. Harding.) In the interests of the monopolies the Coolidge government raised tariffs, hindered the implementation of legislation designed to aid farmers, and waged a struggle against the workers’ movement. It opposed US participation in the League of Nations, conducted an expansionist policy in Latin America and the Far East, and facilitated the restoration of the military potential of German imperialism (for example, through the Dawes Plan). Coolidge adopted a hostile position toward the USSR and refused to grant it diplomatic recognition.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coolidge, Calvin

(1872–1933) 30th U.S. president; nicknamed “Silent Cal.” [Am. Hist.: Frank, 99]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Coolidge, (John) Calvin

(1872–1933) thirtieth U.S. president; born in Plymouth, Vt. After graduating from Amherst College (1895), he became a lawyer in Northampton, Mass. As a Republican, he held a series of local and state offices until becoming governor of Massachusetts (1919–20); he gained national attention for using the state militia to suppress a police strike. Elected vice-president in 1920, he succeeded to the presidency on Warren Harding's death in 1923. He was reelected the next year. A popular and deliberately hands-off president in prosperous times, he was noted more for what he did not do and say than for what he did (although among his oft-quoted phrases is his 1925 remark, "the business of America is business."). In his private life he was equally noted for his taciturn, thrifty ways. After leaving the White House, he retired to Northampton and wrote various articles promoting his conservative views as well as his autobiography (1929).
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
was sober, sane and fully responsible for his acts." Davis, in his nine-page recommendation to President Coolidge, informed the president that Thompson was "guilty of the unprovoked and atrocious murder of an innocent young girl." (52)
Escorted by a cruiser and a destroyer, the President Coolidge zig-zagged across the Pacific, trying to evade Japanese submarines.
The remainder of the commission, whose roles, according to President Coolidge, were to lend expert advice and expedite resource provision, included the secretaries of the Departments of the Treasury, War, and Navy, and the members of the Red Cross Central Committee.
President Coolidge, for example, regularly discussed Cabinet sessions that typically preceded his news conferences and answered some queries.
That's the sort of business President Coolidge would have been proud to see any Wall Street banker achieve.
There have been many interesting "side" stories: members taking President Coolidge fishing and opening the door for the formation of the Bureau of Agricultural Engineering; the effort to exchange tractors for prisoners with Fidel Castro; building ASAE's headquarters building; developing industry support for ASAE standards; the publication of the ASAE history books.
Army Transport ship President Coolidge after the 22,000 ton troop transport struck a mine off a small South Pacific island.
I even made a speech to the Congress at that time, just ahead of President Coolidge ...
Here President Coolidge is flanked by manager Bucky Harris and a beaming Walter Johnson.
The nationwide appeal would be delivered at carefully planned events featuring President Coolidge, members of the cabinet, the Harding family, the armed forces, and other prominent Americans.
Originally designated in 1924 by President Coolidge, the land was set aside to protect the unique volcanic landscape created by lava flows over the last 5 million years.
Background and Tips: President Coolidge established a Protocol Office in the State Department after wartime enemies were mistakenly seated next to each other at a dinner.