Baltic states

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Baltic states,

the countries of EstoniaEstonia
, Estonian Eesti, officially Republic of Estonia, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,315,000), 17,505 sq mi (45,339 sq km). It borders on the Baltic Sea in the west; the gulfs of Riga and Finland (both arms of the Baltic) in the southwest and north, respectively; Latvia
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, LatviaLatvia
, Latvian Latvija, officially Republic of Latvia, republic (2015 est. pop. 1,993,000), 24,590 sq mi (63,688 sq km), north central Europe. It borders on Estonia in the north, Lithuania in the south, the Baltic Sea with the Gulf of Riga in the west, Russia in the
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, and LithuaniaLithuania
, Lithuanian Lietuva, officially Republic of Lithuania, republic (2015 est. pop. 2,932,000), 25,174 sq mi (65,201 sq km), N central Europe. Lithuania borders on the Baltic Sea in the west, Latvia in the north, Belarus in the east and southeast, Poland in the
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, bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. Formed in 1918, they remained independent republics until their involuntary incorporation in 1940 into the USSR. They regained their independence in Sept., 1991, and virtually all Russian troops were withdrawn by Aug., 1994. Finland is usually classed with the Scandinavian rather than with the Baltic states. See also Baltic provincesBaltic provinces,
historic regions of Courland, Livonia, Estonia, and Ingermanland bordering on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea. They were conquered by Russia from Sweden in the 18th cent. and made into provinces.
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References in periodicals archive ?
(2) According to Zubkova, Pribaltika i Kreml', 256, the Baltic Soviet republics after the death of Stalin appeared to be a "tamed but not loyal" region.
(6) Vytautas Tininis, Snieckus 33 metai valdzioje [Snieckus's 33 Years in Power] (Vilnius: Lietuvos Karo akademija, 2000); Zubkova, Pribaltika i Kreml', 264-66, 300-19; William Prigge, "The Latvian Purges of 1959: A Revision Study?
(7) Andrejs Plakans, A Concise History of the Baltic States (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 377; Zubkova, Pribaltika iKreml', 3-4.
(10) Zubkova saw this film in a pioneer camp when she was eight years old (Pribaltika i Kreml', 191-92).
Iuliia Kantor prefaces her Pribaltika: Voina bez pravil (1939-1945) by pointing out that the official position of the Russian state has been consistently to reject the "occupation" label for the incorporation of the three Baltic states into the USSR (5).
There is much valuable information in Pribaltika: Voina bez pravil, and much effort has evidently gone into its collection and organization.
Zubkova, Pribaltika i Kreml': 1940-1953 (Moscow: Rosspen, 2008).
(4) Although Soviet discourse in the interwar period named all the former Russian provinces on the coast of the Baltic Sea from Poland to Finland "Baltic"--indeed, Finland was still designated as bahisch in the Hitler-Stalin Pact of 1939--only the Soviet occupation in 1940 fixed this label exclusively on the three republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (known in Russian as Sovetskaia Pribaltika), a label they still bear today.
Due to the potentially explosive situation in the Baltic region, Pribaltika retained a special status within the Union, from its incorporation in 1940 until the Soviet collapse (15).
Yet Zubkova's study provides historians with a much-needed framework for further study, and the Estonian historian Tonu Tannberg has already deployed her earlier articles on Sovetskaia Pribaltika in a book that is based on Russian and Estonian archival material.
Fedosova, Rossiia i Pribaltika: Kul 'turnyi dialog.