Before he was evicted in the 1947 coup the progressive Prime Minister Pridi Phanomyong
had restored the country's traditional name, thus stressing the rights of the minorities as well as of the ethnic Thai.
Thus, twentieth-century Thai intellectual history can be depicted as a battle between the hegemonic conservatism articulated by figures like King Vajiravudh and Kukrit Pramoj and the socialism-inflected counter-hegemonic ideological challenge led by radicals like Pridi Phanomyong
and Chit Phumisak.
Also contributing to the sense that the rebellion was part of a transnational plot were connections between those arrested and the fugitive former Thai prime minister Pridi Phanomyong
, who had reportedly "travelled into Red China and joined hands with the Communist government, even joining the Communist Peace Campaign in Beijing with a group of Thais who escaped to join the conference" (Sathianraphap, 18 November 1952, p.
, while he was Minister of the Interior (1934-35), also visited the school.
(5.) For examples of these recent covers, see Sathian Janthimaathon, Jonayut nai mueng (Urban guerilla warfare) (Bangkok: Matichon, 2006); Manuun Nuusong, The South of Thailand Crisis: Panhaaa 3 changwat chaidaen phaktai (The problem of the three southern provinces) (Bangkok: Amrinot, 2005); Saengphaechon, Rat Patani: fai tai mai kheuy dap (The state of Patani: The southern fire has never been extinguished) (Bangkok: Wan Chana, 2005); Pridi Phanomyong
and Suphot Daantrakun, Sataanakan fai tai (The situation of the southern fire) (Bangkok: Institute for Social Science [Thailand], 2004).
A combination of army officers (led by Colonels Pahol and Pibul Songkram) and civilians (organised as the People's Party by Nai Pridi Phanomyong
) brought the absolute monarchy to an end in a peaceful coup on June 24th, 1932.
Thus while Khuang publicly supported the Japanese, another member of the elite, Pridi Phanomyong
, secretly opened contacts with the Americans, British, and Chinese.
A number of them had worked directly with the Seri Thai or Free Thai movement run by Pridi Phanomyong
and dominated by ethnic Lao from Isan such as Tieng and Thongin.
A period of fairly radical rule by the law professor Pridi Phanomyong
followed, leading to a royalist counter-revolution and then an army counter-coup against the royalists.
The implicit contention that historians of Thailand, along with Thai intellectuals more broadly, have neglected the fact that both Pridi Phanomyong
and some of his fellow plotters of the overthrow of Siam's absolute monarchy in 1932 studied in France rather than simply in "the West" (p.
For example, his depiction of Pridi Phanomyong
, one of his villains, is both simplistic and antagonistic.
(1900-1983) was the only other Thai ever to have held this title.