Primakov, Yevgeny Maksimovich

Primakov, Yevgeny Maksimovich

(yĭvgyān`yē mŭksyē`məvyĭch' prē'məkôf`), 1929–2015, Russian government official and economist, b. Kiev (now in Ukraine). An Arabic scholar, grad. (1953) Moscow Inst. for Oriental Studies, and a member of the Soviet Communist party (1959–91), he worked in the Middle East for Soviet broadcasting and the party newspaper Pravda in the 1950s and 60s. He became deputy director (1970) and director (1985) of the Institute of World Economic Affairs and International Relations; he was also director (1977–85) of the Institute of Oriental Studies. In 1989, Primakov became a member of the Communist party's central committee, and he served as President Mikhail GorbachevGorbachev, Mikhail Sergeyevich
, 1931–, Soviet political leader. Born in the agricultural region of Stavropol, Gorbachev studied law at Moscow State Univ., where in 1953 he married a philosophy student, Raisa Maksimovna Titorenko (1932?–99).
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's special envoy to Iraq prior to the Persian Gulf WarPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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, a war he unsuccessfully tried to prevent. In 1991, after the August CoupAugust Coup,
attempted coup (Aug. 18–22, 1991) against Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev. On the eve of the signing ceremony for a new union treaty for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, members of the Politburo and the heads of the Soviet military and security
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, he became head of the Central Intelligence Service. He remained head of the renamed Foreign Intelligence Service under the Russian government until 1996, earning a reputation as a hard-liner. In 1996, President Boris YeltsinYeltsin, Boris Nikolayevich
, 1931–2007, Soviet and Russian politician, president of Russia (1991–99). Born in Yekaterinburg (then Sverdlovsk) and educated at the Urals Polytechnic Institute, Yeltsin began his career as a construction worker (1953–68).
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 appointed Primakov foreign minister, and in 1998 he was chosen as a compromise candidate for prime minister when the Duma refused to approve Yeltsin's first choice, Viktor ChernomyrdinChernomyrdin, Viktor Stepanovich
, 1938–2010, Soviet and Russian government official. Beginning in 1957, he held positions in the Soviet national oil and gas industry, serving (1985–89) as minister in control of the nation's huge energy complex.
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. Moving cautiously amid an economic crisis, Primakov avoided financial disaster, but after refusing to dismiss Communist members of his government in May, 1999, as the Communists moved toward impeaching Yeltsin, Primakov himself was dismissed by the president. His political party did more poorly than originally expected in the Dec., 1999, parliamentary elections. In 2003 Vladimir PutinPutin, Vladimir Vladimirovich
, 1952–, Russian government official and political leader, b. Leningrad (now St. Petersburg). After graduating from the Leningrad State Univ.
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 appointed him envoy to Iraq, where he once again unsuccessfully attempted to avert war.
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