prion

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prion

(prē`ŏn), abnormal form of a protein found in mammals, believed to cause a group of diseases known as prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Well-known prion diseases are Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also called "mad cow disease," in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in deer and elk (wapiti). There is no effective treatment for any prion disease.

Sometimes taking more than 30 years to display symptoms, the diseases slowly attack brain tissue, often leaving spongelike holes. They are characterized by accumulations of prions, abnormal forms of a protein called prion protein. Unlike virusesvirus,
parasite with a noncellular structure composed mainly of nucleic acid within a protein coat. Most viruses are too small (100–2,000 Angstrom units) to be seen with the light microscope and thus must be studied by electron microscopes.
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 or bacteriabacteria
[pl. of bacterium], microscopic unicellular prokaryotic organisms characterized by the lack of a membrane-bound nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Once considered a part of the plant kingdom, bacteria were eventually placed in a separate kingdom, Monera.
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, prions contain no genetic material and have no known ability to reproduce themselves. Normal prion proteins occur naturally in brain tissue. Prions differ in shape from normal prion proteins due to misfolding, and are not susceptible to enzymes that normally break down proteins. In the brain, prions appear to increase their number by directly converting normal prion proteins.

Prion diseases have both infectious and hereditary components. The gene that codes for prion proteins can mutate and be passed on to the next generation. Most of the diseases also can be acquired directly by infection with prions, but unlike other infectious agents, prions provoke no immune response. Most prion diseases, however, are not highly transmissable; chronic wasting disease is the exception because infected deer that have not developed the disease shed prions from lymph tissue in their intestines, contaminating the soil and plants on which other deer graze with the prions in their feces.

An epidemic of BSE in Great Britain that was diagnosed in 1986 and infected some 178,000 cows appears to have been caused by a protein feed supplement that contained rendered remains of scrapie-infected sheep brains. In 1996 a suspicion that BSE had been transmitted to humans who died of a variant of CJD in Britain caused a scientific and economic furor as the European Union imposed a ban (1996) on the export of British beef, which was partially lifted in 1999 and fully lifted in 2006. The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture banned the import of cattle and many cattle byproducts from most European nations because of BSE. Instances of BSE in cattle have also occurred in many other European countries, Canada, the United States, and Japan, but the vast majority of cases occurred in Britain in the 1980s. There is now compelling evidence that BSE is the same disease as variant CJD (vCJD), which has killed less than 200 people, but it is not yet known exactly how the disease is passed from animals to humans.

The idea of disease-causing protein particles was first put forward in 1981 by Stanley B. PrusinerPrusiner, Stanley Ben,
1942–, American neurologist, b. Des Moines, Iowa, M.D. Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 1968. Prusiner has been a professor at the Univ. of California, San Francisco since 1974.
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, the neurologist who coined the term prion (from proteinaceous infectious particle). The prion theory was controversial from the beginning, and although scientific evidence for the existence of such infectious particles has increased, an exact causal link between prions and the diseases they are believed to cause remains to be established. Critics believe that these diseases are caused by unidentified viruses.

prion

[′prī‚än]
(biochemistry)
Any of a group of infectious proteins that cause fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals, including scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in animals and Creutzefeldt-Jakob disease and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease in humans.
References in periodicals archive ?
The infected astrocytes produced more prions and were able to infect neighboring healthy cells, the team found, something scientists had never been able to recreate in the lab before.
CWD prions succumbed to clinical disease at 575 [+ or -] 47 or 692 [+ or -] 9 days, depending on the [H95.
Prions are abnormal, transmissible pathogenic agents that induce abnormal folding of specific, normal cellular proteins.
This means these prions self-replicate in brain tissue leaving little microscopic sponge-like voids.
Horizontal transmissibility and the ability for infectious prions to persist in the environment appears to be the most pronounced characteristics of CWD, making control of the disease an extremely complicated situation.
2001) Effect of fixation on brain and lymphoretic vCJD prions and bioassay of key positive specimens from a retrospective vCJD study.
The new study, led by The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) Professor Corinne Lasmezas and performed in collaboration with TSRI Professor Emeritus Charles Weissmann and Director of Lead Identification Peter Hodder, used an innovative high-throughput screening technique to uncover compounds that decrease the amount of the normal form of the prion protein (PrP, which becomes distorted by the disease) at the cell surface.
In addition, the study has revealed surprisingly large structural differences between natural prions and the closest synthetic analogs that scientists have created in the lab.
Prions as adaptative conduits of memory and inheritance.
The disease can occur after prions accumulate in a cow's body over a long period of time.
According to the Food and Drug Center for Food & Nutrition, prions are associated with a group of diseases called Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs).
The reason for the concern relates to the possibility of the transmission of prions and the risk of developing a neurodegenerative disorder such as Creutzveldt-Jacob disease.