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an academic title designating a lecturer not employed on the regular staff of universities and some other institutions of higher learning in prerevolutionary Russia and a number of foreign countries. The title was introduced into Russia on the initiative of N. I. Pirogov by the university statute of 1863 with the aim of increasing the number of teachers able to give lecture courses, in addition to professors and docents. As a rule, the privatdocent was given elective courses to teach. In accordance with the university statute of 1884, the title of privatdocent replaced the abolished title of docent.