globalization

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globalization

Operating around the world. Although many large companies have globalized for decades, the Web, more than any other phenomenon, has enabled the smallest company to have a global presence. See localization.

globalization

A mulifaceted process in which the world is becoming more and more interconnected and communication is becoming instanteneous. Aspects of this process include:
  1. the transformation of the spatial arrangement and organization of social relations involving ‘action at a distance’, a stretching of social relations and transactions (and power), including instantaneous communications across time-space;
  2. the increasing extensity, intensity, velocity and impact of global social relations and transactions (see Held et al. 1999);
  3. the creation of new networks and nodes – the ‘network society’ (CASTELLS) – associated with the new levels of dependence on knowledge/ information and ‘expert systems – the ‘information’ or ‘knowledge society’ – as well as the new risks associated with this – RISK SOCIETY;
  4. a dialect between the global and the local in which (consistent with a dialect of power and the duality of structure) the outcome is not a simple triumph of the centre over the periphery, mere Americanization’, or suchlike (see also MCDONALDIZATION).

As Held et al. (1999) suggest, a ‘vibrant’ ongoing debate exists on the characterization of globalization between three groups of theorists:

  1. ‘hyperglobalizers’ (e.g. Ohmae 1990; 1995) for whom global marketization is the main driver;
  2. 'S ceptics’ (notably Hirst and Thompson 1996a and b), who play down the level and distinctiveness of the change;
  3. ‘transformationalists’, including GIDDENS, for whom globalization is a distinctive new phase such that societies and states across the globe are experiencing profound social as well as economic changes – a ‘massive shake-out’ of social relations, economies, governance and politics – as they seek to adapt to an increasingly interconnected but also unpredictable and uncertain world.
References in periodicals archive ?
Markusen often attempts to present the pro-globalization case in anti-globalization conferences, after which he enjoys a hard bike ride in the mountains, followed by research into local micro brews.
Naiman's act helped set the stage for the first really big post-Seattle confrontation between pro-globalization and anti-globalization forces: the spring meeting of the IMF and the World Bank in Washington, D.
Rather, most of the confrontations have been rearguard-type actions challenging the neoliberal and pro-globalization policies implemented by successive governments since 1984.
And they see a rising tide of political resentment so strong that the successful pro-globalization, pro-capital policies of President Bill Clinton, which were remarkable in avoiding class warfare, are perceived as somehow part of America's tarnished past.
Mind you, even the German center-left party, still a highly pro-globalization party, found it necessary to separate from the Greens because Greens are now widely perceived as a high-income, socially dangerous party.
In general, on Capitol Hill elements of both political parties today seem less enamored of the pro-globalization, pro-free-flowing capital policies of Bill Clinton than of the inward-looking economic and trade policies of Pat Buchanan.