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see political action committeepolitical action committee
(PAC), U.S. organization formed by a corporation, labor union, or association to raise money for political activity. Funds can be gathered by voluntary contributions from members, employees, or shareholders.
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(1) See perceptual audio coding.

(2) (Programmable Automation Controller) A programmable microprocessor-based device that is used for discrete manufacturing, process control and remote monitoring applications. Designed for use in rugged, industrial environments, PACs combine the functions of a programmable logic controller (PLC) with the greater flexibility of a PC. They are also more easily set up for data collection and integration with the company's business applications than PLCs.

Although each PAC vendor uses its own development environment (IDE) and programming language, PAC networking is typically based on IP and Ethernet. Taking advantage of off-the-shelf microprocessors, PACs were developed in the 1990s to provide a single industrial controller that would provide the functions of a DCS and PLC. The term was coined in 2001 by the ARC Advisory Group ( Contrast with PLC and DCS.

PACs in Operation
The large white boxes are Opto 22 SNAP PACs in Chevron's Richmond, Virginia research facility. Processing the PID loops, the wires come from thermocouples that sense pipe temperature in a laboratory test that analyzes the best way to break down crude oil. The PACs determine when to raise and lower temperatures, and the three modules with the black sockets send digital signals to the heaters (cables not connected in this image). (Image courtesy of Opto 22,
References in periodicals archive ?
Oxygen free radical scavenging abilities of vitamins C and E, and a grape seed proanthocyanidin extract in vitro.
As expected, the black and red rice cultivars contained high concentrations of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin, respectively, whereas the control rice cultivar had neither pigment in the present study.
Similarly to phenolic and flavonoid contents, the highest concentration of proanthocyanidins occurred at the end of the cultivation (140th day) in the treatment that used 60mM of glutamine.
As shown in Table 1, in 2% GS, the recovery of soluble proanthocyanidins after 2 min blanching was the same as observed for the unblanched GS and it was only 50% with respect to the freeze-dried GS.
Park et al., "Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) attenuates collagen-induced arthritis," Immunology Letters, vol.
Proanthocyanidin protects intestine and remote organs against mesenteric ischemia/reperfusion injury.
Among different available cross linkers, grape seed Proanthocyanidin (PA) gained much popularity regarding different its beneficial effects which includes antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antioxidant properties.25,30 PA is a natural cross linking agent.
Patients eligible for the study were individually randomly assigned to oligomeric proanthocyanidins nutritional supplement treatment or placebo groups by an informatics programme by LACER S.A.
Fine, "Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes: History, structure, and phytopharmaceutical applications," Alternative Medicine Review, vol.
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) differentially regulates Foxp3(+) regulatory and 1L-17(+) pathogenic T cell in autoimmune arthritis.
Table-2: Total flavonoid total proanthocyanidin total protein and total phenolic compounds of bitter almond kernel extracts
Cranberries contain a specific group of polyphenol molecules called proanthocyanidins. (21-23) Similar to FimH inhibitors, these molecules may prevent bacteria from sticking to urinary tract lining cells.