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severe acute respiratory syndrome,

communicable viral disease that can progress to a potentially fatal pneumonia. The first symptoms of SARS are usually a high fever, headache and body aches, sore throat, and mild respiratory symptoms; diarrhea may occur. A dry cough and shortness of breath typically develop two to seven days after the first symptoms, and in most persons pneumonia develops in a lobe of the lungs. In 10%–20% of all patients, the pneumonia spreads to other lobes, and death occurs in about 9% of all cases. The death rate is higher among older persons. There is no vaccine or treatment for the virus that causes the disease.

SARS is caused by a coronaviruscoronavirus,
any of a group (family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae) of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that have a crownlike or sunlike appearance under an electron microscope due to the presence of spikes on their surface.
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, one of a group of viruses that are responsible for about one third of all cases of the common coldcold, common,
acute viral infection of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, often involving the sinuses. The typical sore throat, sneezing, and fatigue may be accompanied by body aches, headache, low fever, and chills.
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. The variety that causes SARS had not been previously identified, and may have been transmitted to humans from civetscivet
or civet cat,
any of a large group of mostly nocturnal mammals of the Old World family Viverridae (civet family), which also includes the mongoose. Civets are not true cats, but the civet family is related to the cat family (Felidae).
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 or bats; some studies have suggested that bats were the ultimate source of the virus and civets were intermediate hosts. Infection with SARS mainly occurs when a person in close contact with someone who has the disease is exposed to exhaled droplets. The spread of the disease has been controlled by isolating infected patients and quarantining those exposed to them.

The disease apparently first occurred in Nov., 2002, in Foshan, Guangdong prov., China, but provincial authorities withheld information about it, and when it spread to Beijing local authorities there acted similarly. In Feb., 2003, the World Health Organization first noted reports of cases of atypical pneumonia from China, but Chinese officials did not begin cooperating fully with international experts until April. SARS subsequently spread to some 30 countries on five continents, and affected the economies of China, Hong Kong, and Toronto, where cases were the highest; Taiwan and Singapore were also hard hit. No new cases have been reported since 2004. The rapid international spread of the 2002–3 outbreak was facilitated by air travel and the lack of prompt, early information about SARS from Chinese officials.


See study by T. Abraham (2004).



an urban-type settlement in Oktiabr’skii Raion, Perm’ Oblast, RSFSR. It is located on the upper Sars River (Kama River basin), 7 km from the Chad railroad station on the Kazan-Sverdlovsk line. Sars has a woodworking plant.


severe acute respiratory syndrome; a severe viral infection of the lungs characterized by high fever, a dry cough, and breathing difficulties. It is contagious, having an airborne mode of transmission
References in periodicals archive ?
At the time of writing, the number of individuals reported to WHO as having probable SARS for the period November 1, 2002 to April 30, 2003 is a total of 5663 probable SARS cases, reported from 26 different countries, with 372 deaths reported.
Although he no longer has a fever and a cough, Ismail said his lung X-ray showed haziness, which led health officials to classify him as a probable SARS victim.
Malaysia is lifting the visa restrictions imposed on some SARS-affected countries even as the number of probable SARS victims climbed to seven in the country, the country's acting prime minister said in a statement Thursday.
As well as Birmingham, there are two probable SARS cases,in Manchester and London, a suspected case in Wales and two suspected cases in Ireland.
The ''medium'' pattern for Hebei and Jilin refers to ''more than one generation of local probable SARS cases, but only among persons that have been previously identified and followed-up as known contacts of probable SARS cases.
The companies are concerned that a probable SARS case will force them to temporarily suspend their plant operations, hurting production plans and delaying product delivery schedules.
SARS has killed at least 159 people worldwide and more than 3,200 patients have been recorded as probable SARS cases, according to WHO.
The criteria for reporting SARS patients evolved over time but were principally adopted from the World Health Organization, and the total reported probable SARS patients in Taiwan were 665.
The Beijing office of the World Health Organization (WHO) said Friday doctors in Beijing failed to count some of probable SARS patients with light symptoms, and said this was reflected in official reports of a slowdown of infection in the Chinese capital in recent days.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 72 cases of confirmed or probable SARS have already been reported in the United States.
All of them fit the World Health Organization (WHO) case definition for probable SARS, i.
According to the WHO, a high pattern of transmission means ''local probable cases occurring among persons who have not been previously identified as known contacts of probable SARS cases.

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