a progressive method of organizing production in which the manufacturing process is broken down into distinct, relatively brief operations that are performed at specially equipped, sequentially arranged work positions, that is, production lines. Production-line methods require that production of a single product or of products that are similar in design and manufacture be concentrated in one place. The production line is the chief form of organization in mass production, which is characterized by steady production of goods of a single type. In lot production, individual assemblies and parts that are widely used for different designs are manufactured on production lines. Elements of production-line manufacturing are also used in unit production, where production lines are used to turn out products of similar design and standardized parts. The production-line method is widely used in machine building and instrument making, and in the food-processing, garment, footwear, and lumber industries. It is also used in mining, construction, and agriculture. An important precondition for introducing production-line manufacturing in the USSR is specialization of production, which is carried out in accordance with the state plan. A condition for the successful application of production-line methods is the systematization and standardization of design elements. This promotes the development of highly specialized manufacturing facilities, including intersectorial facilities, and of mass production of assemblies and parts.
Production-line manufacturing improves all work indexes and makes possible a production rhythm that is balanced, smooth, and unbroken. With a high degree of specialization, it becomes possible to make fuller use of high-production mechanized and automated equipment (automatons and semiautomatons). Downtime is reduced or completely eliminated; the proportion of auxiliary operations decreases and labor productivity rises. Balanced and continuous production promotes reduction of stocks of raw and processed materials and results in a shorter production cycle, which ensures a drop in the prime cost of output, a rise in profitability, acceleration in the turnover of working capital, and improvement in the financial condition of enterprises. Various forms of production-line manufacturing are used, depending on the organizational and technological features of the industry. Under the conditions of the scientific and technological revolution, there has been a steady expansion in the use of production-line methods. The further development of production-line manufacturing is essential for raising production efficiency.
REFERENCESOrganizatsiia i planirovanie mashinostroitel’nogo proizvodstva. Edited by I. M. Razumov and L. Ia. Shukhgai’ter. Moscow, 1974.
Saksaganskii, T. D. Organizatsiia proizvodstva na mashinostroitel’nom zavode, 3rd ed. Moscow, 1969.
Organizatsiia i planirovanie proizvodstva na mashinostroitel’nom predpriiatii. Edited by V. A. Letenko. Moscow, 1972.
S. E. KAMENITSER and M. V. MEL’NIK