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in economics, the output of any aspect of production per unit of input. It is a measure of the output of a worker, machine, or an entire national economy in the creation of goods and services to produce wealth. Output can be measured in output per acre for land, per hour for labor, or as a yearly percentage for capital. A high national productivity typically indicates efficient production of goods and services and a competitive economy, but productivity growth can occur during periods of recession and increased unemployment as businesses cut jobs and seek to become more efficient. Productivity in the United States rose an average of 2.5% each year in the 1950s and 60s, then only 1% per year during the 1970s and 80s. Low industrial productivity (especially in the automotive industry) in the United States was a major concern in the 1970s and 80s, as Japanese innovations in assembly linesassembly line,
manufacturing technique in which a product is carried by some form of mechanized conveyor among stations at which the various operations necessary to its assembly are performed. It is used to assemble quickly large numbers of a uniform product.
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 and other manufacturing operations led to greater productivity gains in that country; Japan's resulting competitive edge led to increased exports to the United States and was a factor in the downturn in U.S. business in those decades. During the 1990s and 2000s manufacturing productivity increases averaged 4% (overall nonfarm productivity was 2.2%), but during much of the decade American productivity increases were matched or surpassed by those in many European countries and Japan. Average U.S. productivity increases were even higher until the Great Recession (2007–9), and then dropped significantly.


The yield of a given crop per unit of land.
(industrial engineering)
The ratio of output production to input effort, it is an indicator of the efficiency with which an enterprise converts its resources (inputs) into finished goods or services (outputs).
(petroleum engineering)
Measure of an oil well's ability to produce liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons; categories include relative, specific, ultimate, and fractured-well productivity.


In a business or industrial context, the ratio of output production to input effort. The productivity ratio is an indicator of the efficiency with which an enterprise converts its resources (inputs) into finished goods or services (outputs). If the goal is to increase productivity, this can be done by producing more output with the same level of input. Productivity can also be increased by producing the same output with fewer inputs. One problem with trying to measure productivity is that a decision must be made in terms of identifying the inputs and outputs and how they will be measured. This is relatively easy when productivity of an individual is considered, but it becomes difficult when productivity involves a whole company or a nation.

Industry and government officials have adopted three common types of productivity measures. Partial productivity is the simplest type of productivity measure; a single type of input is selected for the productivity ratio. The company or organization selects an input factor that it monitors in daily activity. Direct labor hours is a factor that most companies monitor because they pay their employees based on hours worked.

Total factor productivity is a productivity measure combines that labor and capital, two of the most common input factors used in the partial productivity measure. This measure is often used at the national level, because many governments collect statistics on both labor and capital. In calculating at the national level, the gross national product (GNP) is used as the output.

Total productivity is a productivity measure that incorporates all the inputs required to make a product or provide a service. The inputs could be grouped in various categories as long as they determine the total inputs required to produce an output.

Many factors affect productivity. Some general categories for these factors are product, process, labor force, capacity, external influences, and quality.

There are many different plans that companies develop in an attempt to improve productivity. Wage incentive plans and changes in management structure are two ways that companies focus on the labor force. Investment in research and development allows companies to develop new products and processes that are more productive. Quality improvement programs can reduce waste and provide more competitive products at a lower cost. See Methods engineering, Operations research, Production planning


The products and services we create. In computer advertising, productivity is an overused buzzword. How amazing that every new hardware and software product makes us all more productive. Naturally, the ads never mention the hours of training people need to use it effectively and the wasted time dealing with tech support afterwards. New systems have a tendency to not work the way we expect (see Systemantics). See productivity software.
References in periodicals archive ?
The positive theoretical relationship between productivity growth and real interest rates can be found in the Ramsey (1928) model of saving and investment.
Those innovations set a high bar for ICT to compete against, and so we should not be surprised that post-1973 productivity growth has typically been lower.
If you look at long-term patterns of productivity growth, they roughly fit this idea, that a booming job market tends to be followed by a productivity boom, and that deep recessions are followed by productivity slumps.
In 2015, multifactor productivity growth rates in the private nonfarm business sector were revised up from 0.
GVCs can foster productivity growth in a number of ways - greater specialization in tasks, increased competition in factor input markets, and knowledge spillovers to local firms from multinational corporations, the main drivers of GVCs.
The experts at the Brookings event were judiciously reluctant to make predictions about the future rate of productivity growth.
While developed market economies being forced to contend with the double challenge of slow to negative labor force growth and slower productivity growth, emerging market economies have much faster labor force growth, on average, and have not seen a slowdown in productivity growth in recent years, according to Kleintop.
This issue of income distribution was not discussed by Young (1928; and in his further elaboration by Kaldor); this could explain, and here the contribution of the paper lies, as to why Kaldor (1975), in his elaboration of Verdoorn-Kaldor law, dismissed the possibility of a strong employment growth-labor productivity growth nexus, as irrelevant, in the conceptualization of a demand-led growth thesis.
This paper proposes a fundamental-based approach to productivity growth analysis to identify those factors crucially important to long-run growth.
Productivity growth was even weaker in 2013 and 2012 than previously thought.
REAL WAGES have not keep up with productivity growth over the last 30 years of "trickledown economics", according to the Council of Trade Unions (CTU).
In fact, based on estimates of productivity growth road transport should be regarded as one of the 'revolutionized' sectors of the eighteenth-century British economy and a key contributor to the industrial revolution.

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