Abdus Salam

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Salam, Abdus,

1926–96, Pakistani physicist. After attending Government College at Lahore, he received a Ph.D. from Cambridge (1952). He taught in Lahore for three years before returning to England, first teaching mathematics at Cambridge (1954–57), then moving to Imperial College in London, where he became a professor of theoretical physics. In the early 1960s he developed a theory to explain some behavior of the weak interactionsweak interactions,
actions between elementary particles mediated, or carried, by W and Z particles and that are responsible for nuclear decay. Weak interactions are one of four fundamental interactions in nature, the others being gravitation, electromagnetism, and the strong interactions.
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 of elementary particles. For this work, in 1979 he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics with Steven WeinbergWeinberg, Steven,
1933–, American nuclear physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Princeton, 1957. Since 1982 he has been a professor at the Univ. of Texas at Austin, having previously been on the faculties of Columbia, the Univ.
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 and Sheldon GlashowGlashow, Sheldon Lee
, 1932–, American physicist, b. New York City, Ph.D. Harvard, 1959. He became a professor at the Univ. of California at Berkeley in 1961 before moving to Harvard in 1967.
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. Salam also played an important role in the development of nuclear energy and the atomic bomb in Pakistan, but after 1974 he lived in exile in protest against a 1974 Pakistani law that defined Ahmadis (the religious group of which he was a member) as non-Muslims (see AhmadiyyaAhmadiyya
, a contemporary messianic movement founded (1899) by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1839–1908), b. Qadiyan, the Punjab. His Barahin-i Ahmadiyya, which he began to publish in 1880, was well received by his Islamic community.
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). To support Third World scientists and scientific research, Salam founded what is now the Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics in 1964 and the Third World Academy of Sciences in 1983 (both in Trieste, Italy). He headed the International Center until his death.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Salam, Abdus

 

Born Jan. 29, 1926, in Jhang Maghiana. Pakistani physicist.

Salam graduated from Cambridge University in 1951. He was a professor at Government College in Lahore from 1951 to 1954 and a lecturer at Cambridge from 1954 to 1956; in 1957 he became a professor at the University of London. In 1964 he became director of the International Center for Theoretical Physics in Trieste. He was chief scientific adviser to the president of Pakistan from 1961 to 1974 and was chairman of the UN Advisory Committee on Science and Technology in 1971.

Salam’s main works deal with quantum electrodynamics and the theory of elementary particles. He has contributed to work on problems of renormalization, and he was the first to call attention to the significance of overlap divergences and to point out ways of constructing theories that are amenable to renormalization. He has worked on a uniform theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, the theory of symmetry, and the quark model of elementary particles. He has been a member of the London Royal Society since 1959 and a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR since 1971.

WORKS

“The Renormalization of Meson Theories.” Reviews of Modern Physics, 1951, vol. 23, no. 4. (With P. T. Matthews.)
“Electromagnetic and Weak Interactions.” Physics Letters, 1964, vol. 13, no. 2. (With J. C. Ward.)
Fundamental Theory of Matter. Trieste, 1968.

I. D. ROZHANSKII

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He also recalled that 'today, the opening day of the symposium, is also the 93rd birthday of Pakistan's only Nobel Laureate in science -- Prof Dr Abdus Salam, who not only studied, but also taught at the GCU for a long time'.
Prof Abbas dedicated the conference to Nobel Laureate Prof Dr Abdus Salam and philosopher poet Allama Muhammad Iqbal.
In his presidential address, Prof G Murtaza asked the students to never forget the contributions of their parents in their life, saying that 'your parents comprise a lot so that you can be successful.' He also shared the inspiring story of Nobel Laureate Prof Dr Abdus Salam with the young graduates and told them how a Pakistani village boy became a towering personality in the world of Physics.
Dean Faculty of Agriculture Prof Dr Abdus Salam, Canadian Dalhousie University Expert Qamar Zaman, Dr Joseph, UAF Deans Dr Iqbal Zafar, Dr Allah Buksh, Dr Masood Sadiq Butt, Dr Mohammad Javed, Dr Zafar Iqbal Queshi, Dr Ehsanul Haq, Dr Sajjad Ahmad, Dr Tahir Siddique and other notables also spoke on the occasion.
Prof Dr Abdus Salam was the first Pakistani, to receive the Nobel Prize (Physics) in 1979 in recognition of his work on electroweak unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces, he added.
UAF Dean Prof Dr Abdus Salam called for finding a solution to the
GCU: A seminar was held at the Government College University (GCU) on Friday in connection with the 22nd death anniversary of Nobel Laureate Prof Dr Abdus Salam.
'When you say the old generation has failed the nation, did you mean that Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ai Jinnah had failed the nation or the great old Ravians like Allama Muhammad Iqbal, Prof Dr Abdus Salam, Faiz Ahmed Faiz and Dr Samar Mubarikmand had failed the nation or your parents or teachers who had nurtured you and make you able to speak at this stage had failed the nation?' he asked the young speakers.
UAF Dean Prof Dr Abdus Salam called for finding a solution to the longstanding Kashmir dispute in light of the UN resolutions.
He also shared the inspiring story of Nobel Laureate Prof Dr Abdus Salam with the graduates and told them how a Pakistani village boy became a towering personality in the world of physics.
Chairman Plant Breeding and Genetics Prof Dr Abdus Salam, Director ORIC Prof Dr Asif Ali, Treasurer Umar Saeed, Director Academics Dr Ghulam Murtaza, Director Internal Audit Rana Kahlid Mahmood, former PARB member Dr Adbur Rasheed, Dr Nosaba Amjad, Chief Executive Officer Niha International Dr Nadeem Tariq, Human Resource Expert Salman Mushtaq and IT expert Mohammad Owais addressed the participants.
PBG Department chairman Prof Dr Abdus Salam said that world was making quick progress, adding it was need of the hour to expedite the efforts for addressing the issues of people.