a book that in addition to instructional material (what to learn) also contains directions on how to learn: how to combine visual or aural apprehension of material (reading or listening) with verification of the assimilation of knowledge and skills. A programmed textbook also indicates how to find and eliminate discrepancies between the projected level of assimilation of knowledge and the level actually achieved.
A programmed textbook is part of a linear, branching, or combined instructional program. The material in the textbook is divided into parts, each of which contains a unit of information to be assimilated or instructions on student fulfillment of certain assignments, additional explanation, and questions and answers for self-testing.
The programmed textbook performs a number of the teacher’s functions: it serves as a source of information, organizes the instructional procedure, monitors the degree of assimilation of the material, regulates the rate of study, gives necessary explanations, and prevents mistakes. The student’s work is usually checked immediately by answers provided. If the questions have been answered correctly, the student may proceed to the next part; if the answers are incorrect, the programmed textbook usually elucidates the typical mistakes made by the student.
Programmed textbooks cannot always be read page after page; they are often interrupted by questions and problems for self-testing. Only obtaining the correct answer permits the student to continue.
L. D. CHERVIAKOVA