program

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program

(sometimes), programme
a sequence of coded instructions fed into a computer, enabling it to perform specified logical and arithmetical operations on data

Program

A written document that defines the intended functions and uses of a building, or site, and is used to initiate and control an architectural design or preservation project.

Program

 

(1) A plan of activity or work.

(2) A statement of the basic concepts and goals of a political party (for example the Program of the CPSU), organization, or individual.

(3) A concise statement, or syllabus, describing the content of an academic course.

(4) An ordered sequence of actions for a computer that realizes an algorithm for the solution of a certain problem (see).

program

[′prō·grəm or ′prō‚gram]
(aerospace engineering)
In missile guidance, the planned flight path events to be followed by a missile in flight, including all the critical functions, preset in a program device, which control the behavior of the missile.
(communications)
A sequence of audio signals alone, or audio and video signals, transmitted for entertainment or information.
(computer science)
A detailed and explicit set of directions for accomplishing some purpose, the set being expressed in some language suitable for input to a computer, or in machine language.
(industrial engineering)
An undertaking of significant scope that is enduring rather than occurring within a limited time span.

program

A statement prepared by or for an owner, with or without an architect’s assistance, setting forth the conditions and objectives for a building project including its general purpose and detailed requirements, such as a complete listing of the rooms required, their sizes, special facilities, etc.

program

program

(1) (verb) To write the lines of code in a program.

(2) (noun) A collection of instructions that tell the computer what to do. All programs are "software," while the programs users work with (word processor, spreadsheet, Web browser, etc.) are called "applications," "application programs" or simply "apps." The programs that control the computer (operating system, driver, etc.) are "system software." See application software and system software.

All programs are written in a programming language, such as C, C++ or Java, and the statements and commands written by the programmer are converted into the computer's machine language by software called "assemblers," "compilers" and "interpreters." See assembly language, compiler and interpreter.

Instructions, Buffers, Constants and Counters
A program contains machine instructions, buffers, constants and counters. The instructions are the directions that the computer follows, and they embody the program's logic. Buffers are reserved input/output areas that accept and hold the data while being processed.

Constants are fixed values used for comparison, such as minimums, maximums and dates. Menu titles and error messages are another type of constant. Counters, also called "variables," are reserved space for summing money amounts, quantities, virtually any calculations, including those necessary to keep track of internal operations, such as how many times a function is repeated.

Input-Process-Output
The program calls for data in an input-process-output sequence. After the data have been input into one of the program's buffers from a peripheral device (keyboard, disk, etc.), they are processed. The results are output to a peripheral device (screen, printer, etc.). Permanent changes are written back to the disk.

The Application Talks to the OS
The application program, which does the actual data processing, does not instruct the computer to do everything. When it is ready for input or needs to output data, it sends a request to the operating system (OS), which performs those services and then turns control back to the application program.

The Illustration Below
Following is a highly conceptual illustration of a program residing in memory being executed. In the physical reality of memory (RAM chips), everything is binary 0s and 1s.

Although represented as uniform, black blocks in the diagram, machine instructions can be variable in length. They reside in the program in some logical order with some instructions pointing back to the beginning of routines or to other parts of the program. When they erroneously point to the wrong places, the program crashes (see abend).

For an understanding of what the computer does to process data, read about The 3 C's: calculate, compare and copy (see computer).


Anatomy of a Program
A program is made up of "data" and "processing." Buffers hold incoming and outgoing data, counters accumulate totals, and constants are values used for comparison. The instructions are executed to process the data.
References in periodicals archive ?
Industries with high turnover, such as retail and fast food, are less likely to implement programs. The good news, however, is that small and midsized employers in various industries are starting to jump on board, Pelletier said.
Researchers recommend reading the descriptions of classes and sessions closely to see if a program was developed from solid female-focused research or is simply a rehashing of existing programs for a female audience.
Farm Broadcaster: Mike Adams# (host@agritalk.com) Program Producer: John Harris (producer@agdtalk.com) Business Lead: Rick Patton (rpatton@food360.com), 314/724-3936 Sales Contact: Mike Perrine# (mperrine@food360.com), 314/372-3523 Measurement: AMR (2004)
Friend helped Wen network with other PwC partners by pointing him toward higher-profile assignments and volunteering him to help on various national programs and initiatives at PwC.
The report cited The Seed as an example of programs that "begin by subjecting the individual to isolation and humiliation in a conscious effort to break down his psychological defenses." It concluded that such programs are "similar to the highly refined brainwashing techniques employed by the North Koreans in the early 1950's."
In this first of a three-part series to address the need to capture the expertise of the existing workforce and develop the next generation of program leaders, I will discuss the business case for doing so, define project and program management, and explore the concept of competencies (i.e., the knowledge, skills, and abilities required for successful performance in the job).
Because many diverse programs, services and communities had the potential to be involved in emergency contraception service delivery, DOH and DSHS determined that the approach for integrating information and services into state programs should be flexible and allow for local control on the part of institutions and health jurisdictions.
A by-product of the Day Spring Program is that we have been able to increase revenue from enriched care and increased census.
Many students graduate from teacher education programs without the skills and knowledge to become effective teachers.
To identify barriers to participation in literacy programs for people with mental-health disabilities and identify best-practice models that could be implemented by adult literacy programs throughout Ottawa.
"What schools do when they introduce programs such as the Miami Access Initiative is open up the concept of a college education to a lot of students who didn't even think it would be possible," Knepfle says.
Based on experience with this expanded research and evaluation partnership over the past five years, we believe this type of model relationship between a state agency and a university not only has a great deal of merit, but should be pursued in other states where rehabilitation counseling or related programs reside within research intensive universities, particularly those with doctoral preparation programs.

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