Progressive Conservative party


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Progressive Conservative party,

former Canadian political party, formed in 1942 by the merger of the Progressive and Conservative parties. Beginning with the first Canadian prime minister, John A. MacdonaldMacdonald, Sir John Alexander,
1815–91, Canadian statesman, first prime minister of the Dominion of Canada, b. Glasgow. His parents settled in 1820 in Kingston, Ont. Macdonald first practiced law.
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 in 1867, the Conservative party dominated Canadian politics for much of the first three decades after confederation in 1867. The Conservative party's commitments to a strong confederation, national economic development, and close ties to Britain were continued by subsequent Conservative prime ministers, John J. C. AbbottAbbott, Sir John Joseph Caldwell,
1821–93, Canadian political leader. He was a graduate of McGill College, where he served on the law faculty (1853–80). He served in the Canadian House of Commons (1860–74; 1880–87) before his appointment to the Senate in
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, John S. D. ThompsonThompson, Sir John Sparrow David,
1844–94, Canadian political leader, b. Nova Scotia. He was elected (1877) to the provincial assembly, was briefly provincial prime minister, and then was made a justice of the supreme court of Nova Scotia.
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, Mackenzie BowellBowell, Sir Mackenzie
, 1823–1917, Canadian prime minister, b. England. A leader of the Protestant and English interests in Canada, he served as a Conservative in the Canadian House of Commons (1867–92) and in the Senate (1892–1906).
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, and Charles TupperTupper, Sir Charles,
1821–1915, Canadian statesman, b. Nova Scotia. A doctor, he sat (1855–67) in the provincial legislature, became (1864) premier of Nova Scotia, and was a leader in the movement for Canadian confederation.
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. Reactions to the pro-British direction of Conservative policy and the execution of French-Canadian rebel Louis RielRiel, Louis
, 1844–85, Canadian insurgent, leader of two rebellions, b. Manitoba, of French and Métis parentage. In 1869–70 he led the rebels of the Red River settlements, mainly Métis (people of mixed European–indigenous descent) and indigenous
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 led to a decline in Conservative party fortunes in Quebec, and the start of a long period of Liberal partyLiberal party,
Canadian political party. Prior to confederation in 1867, reform parties advocating greater local participation in provincial governments, free trade, and increased separation of church and state existed in Canada West, Canada East, and the Maritime Provinces.
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 dominance.

In the 1920s, Conservative prime ministers Robert BordenBorden, Sir Robert Laird,
1854–1937, Canadian political leader, prime minister during World War I, b. Grand Pré, N.S. Called to the bar in 1878, he won a reputation as a constitutional lawyer.
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 and Arthur MeighenMeighen, Arthur
, 1874–1960, Canadian political leader, b. Ontario. A lawyer, he began his career in Manitoba. Entering (1908) the Canadian House of Commons as a Liberal-Conservative, he became solicitor general (1913), secretary of state and minister of mines (1917), and
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 managed to forge a coalition of groups alienated by Liberal party policies, but opposition by Quebec to the conscription policy during World War I led to a decline in Conservative support. During the Great Depression Richard B. BennettBennett, Richard Bedford,
1870–1947, Canadian prime minister, b. Hopewell, N.B. In 1927 he succeeded Arthur Meighen as leader of the Conservative party; upon the defeat of the Liberals in 1930, he became prime minister.
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 formed a Conservative government, though the persistence of the depression led to its eventual collapse. In 1942, incorporating elements of the old Progressive party, the Conservative party adopted the label Progressive Conservative party and advocated a more reform-minded program, but this did little to change the party's national fortunes.

In John DiefenbakerDiefenbaker, John George
, 1895–1979, Canadian political leader. Elected to Parliament (1940), he succeeded George Drew as leader of the Progressive Conservative party (1956), and (1957) succeeded Liberal Louis St.
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, prime minister from 1957 to 1963, the Progressive Conservative party found a charismatic figure who helped forge a new base for the party in the western provinces. The growing problem of Quebec autonomy contributed to another two decades of Liberal government; Joe ClarkClark, Joe
(Charles Joseph Clark), 1939–, prime minister of Canada (1979–80), b. High River, Alta. He entered the Canadian House of Commons from Alberta in 1972 and became leader of the Progressive Conservative party in 1976.
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, party leader from 1976 to 1983, was briefly prime minister in 1979. From 1986, the Progressive Conservative party under Prime Minister Brian MulroneyMulroney, Brian
(Martin Brian Mulroney) , 1939–, Canadian prime minister (1984–93). Raised in Quebec in a working class family, Mulroney was a successful bilingual lawyer who became active in provincial politics in the 1970s.
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 attempted to resolve the delicate constitutional issues of provincial status in the failed Meech Lake AccordsMeech Lake Accord,
set of constitutional reforms designed to induce Quebec to accept the Canada Act. The Accord's five basic points, proposed by Quebec Premier Robert Bourassa, include a guarantee of Quebec's special status as a "distinct society" and a commitment to Canada's
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 and unsuccessful constitutional proposals, and negotiated a free trade agreement (1987) with the United States. The unpopularity of his economic policies, however led Mulroney to resign in 1993.

Kim CampbellCampbell, Kim
(Avril Phaedra Campbell), 1947–, Canadian political leader, prime minister of Canada (1993), b. Port Alberni, British Columbia. A litigation lawyer and originally a member of the Social Credit party, she held (1983–88) appointed and elected provincial
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, the party's and Canada's first female leader, briefly governed and led the party (1993) before she and all but two of the party's parliamentary candidates were rejected at the polls. She was succeeded as party leader by Jean CharestCharest, Jean
, 1958–, Canadian politician. A lawyer and member of the Progressive Conservative party, he was a member of parliament from Quebec from 1984. From 1986 to 1993 Charest served in cabinet positions—as minister of state for youth (1986–90) and
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, who led the national party to a partial recovery in the 1997 elections, but the party's full recovery was hampered by the emergence of the Reform party (later the Canadian AllianceCanadian Alliance,
former Canadian political party that had its origins in the Reform party of Canada, which was founded in 1987 in Winnipeg, Man., as a W Canada–based conservative alternative to the Progressive Conservative party.
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). Joe Clark again became the party's leader in 1998. In 2000 the party won only 12 seats in Parliament, making it the smallest of the five represented parties. although it garnered the third largest bloc of popular votes. Peter MacKayMacKay, Peter Gordon
, 1966–, Canadian politician, b. New Glasgow, N.S. A lawyer who briefly worked (1992–93) in Germany, MacKay returned to his native Nova Scotia in 1993 and became a crown attorney.
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 succeeded Joe Clark as party leader in 2003, and subsequently led the national party into a merger with the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative partyConservative party,
in Canada. 1 Former Canadian political party that merged with the Progressive party to form the Progressive Conservative party. 2 Officially the Conservative party of Canada,
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 of Canada.

References in periodicals archive ?
Public hearings were held, experts consulted, industry groups canvassed, and, in the end, the House of Commons' Standing Committee on Finance recommended replacing the GST with "a nationally integrated, multistage value-added tax on consumption." In other words, exactly what the Progressive Conservative Party had sought back in 1987 when it began negotiations with the provinces with a view to introducing a single national VAT.
2, about 500 enthusiastic members of Alberta's Progressive Conservative party congregated in a rundown airplane hangar adjacent to Edmonton's aviation museum.
While he was well known as president of Canada's Progressive Conservative Party, he was respected by powerful members of all political parties,
Shouldn't there be, at the very least, an apology coming from the government of Ontario and the Progressive Conservative Party that made us all wait for so long to get to this point?
The suggestions are that it should be renamed "The Democrats" or "The New Democrats" or, even worse, "The Reform and Progressive Conservative Party".
The suggestions are that it should be renamed ``The Democrats'' or ``The New Democrats'' or, even worse, ``The Reform and Progressive Conservative Party''.
It was particularly important during the period of major change that followed the electoral victory of the Progressive Conservative Party under the leadership of Brian Mulroney, because during that critical period, some members of the Advisory Committee communicated directly with Pat Carney, the new Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada.
The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada with which we are currently familiar--the party of John Diefenbaker and Joe Clark--has, however, long since left behind the elements of prejudice in its history and embraced the equality.
The last session was with senior officials from the Progressive Conservative party who suggested that the issue be brought to the next PC National Convention and to the attention of PC Senators.
After the last election, a unite-the-right movement attempted to merge the western-based populist Reform Party with disenchanted members of the Progressive Conservative Party, which draws most of its support from central and eastern Canada.
Protests notwithstanding, the Progressive Conservative Party holds a sizeable majority in the provincial legislature.
The first round of cuts to the 33-year-old Ontario Arts Council (OAC) ordained by the ruling Reformers (once called the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario) was to the infrastructure--the staff, paper clips and clip boards.

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