Prolamin


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Related to Prolamin: glutelin

prolamin

[prō′lam·ən]
(biochemistry)
Any of the simple proteins, such as zein, found in plants; soluble in strong alcohol, insoluble in absolute alcohol and water.

Prolamin

 

a simple reserve protein found only in the seeds of cereals. Prolamins include gliadin, found in wheat and rye, zein, found in corn, hordein, found in barley, avenin, found in oats, oryzin, found in rice, and kaffirin, found in sorghum. Prolamins are soluble in 60–80 percent aqueous ethyl alcohol. They contain radicals of glutamic acid (over 40 percent) and proline (about 15 percent) but very little lysine, which accounts for the biological inferiority of the reserve proteins of grain crops.

Prolamins are heterogeneous. It is possible to divide them by means of chromatography and electrophoresis into components that are closely related in amino-acid composition but that differ in molecular weight and electrical charge; for example, the prolamin of wheat divides into 15 to 30 components with molecular weights that range from 31,000 to 78,000. The majority of components consist of a single polypeptide chain. Some components are capable of polymerizing through disulfide bonds and becoming parts of glutelins. The componential composition of gliadin is determined genetically and is an indicator of wheat variety. In wheat grains, gliadin and glutenin form gluten; the bread-baking quality of wheat depends on the content and physical properties of gluten.

A. B. VAKAR

References in periodicals archive ?
Delivery of prolamins to the protein storage vacuole in maize aleurone cells.
Determination of Fe Associated with Albumins, Globulins, Prolamins, and Glutelins in All Phaseolus Bean Varieties by F AAS.
Four soluble fractions were identified in nut total protein: albumins, globulins, prolamins, and glutelins.
In both varieties, the grains contained higher levels of glutelin than prolamin, as expected for rice, confirming the higher nutritional quality of rice in comparison with other cereals such as corn, in which the main protein is prolamin, with lower nutritional quality (Figure 3).
Low-tannin cultivar Fermenta Albumin Globulin Prolamin Glutelin Albumin tion time (h) 0 11.5 8.2 60.2 102 10.0 2 10.9 4.4 62.3 12.0 12.5 4 12.0 7.6 51.9 19.0 12.5 6 13.3 10.7 48.2 17.1 10.1 8 13.8 13.2 46.6 18.5 10.0 10 13.3 13.8 47.2 16.3 9.7 12 13.7 13.3 47.5 14.7 9.3 14 13.7 13.1 51.1 10.3 8.9 High-tannin cultivar Fermenta Globulin Prolamin Glutelin tion time (h) 0 4.7 67.9 9.4 2 5.6 61.5 11.8 4 9.4 59.4 13.2 6 5.4 71.1 8.1 8 5.3 66.5 12.0 10 4.5 68.2 12.3 12 4.3 68.7 12.4 14 4.1 69.4 12.4 Source: Elkhalifa and El Tinay (1994) Table 5.
Kato, "Oxidation of proline decreases immunoreactivity and alters structure of barley prolamin," Food Chemistry, vol.
[15.] Usman LA, Ameen OM, Lawal A and GV Awolola Effect of Alkaline Hydrolysis on The Quantity of Extractable Protein Fractions (Prolamin, Albumin, Globulin and Glutelin) in Jatropha Curcas Seed Cake.
The solvent in the 80% alcohol filtrate containing prolamin was removed using a rotary evaporator at 45[degrees]C.
Awolola, "Effect of alkaline hydrolysis on the quantity of extractable protein fractions (prolamin, albumin, globulin and glutelin) in Jatropha curcas seed cake," African Journal of Biotechnology, vol.
Prolamin, a protein in the maize grain that wraps starch granules, is another factor that may jeopardize starch granules in cereals (Chandrashekar & Mazhar, 1999).
Tatham, "The prolamin storage proteins of cereal seeds: structure and evolution," Biochemical Journal, vol.
My PhD research proved that microparticles (colloidal particles with micron size) made from kafirin, the prolamin storage protein in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.