But just because these discussions recognize that many left-wing notions either attributed too much potential for social transformation to workers or exaggerated the bourgeois abandonment of liberal principles, and because he shows that some moderate socialists were hardly less terrified by the threat of Bolshevik dictatorship and violence than were bourgeois liberals, the notion that what chiefly stood in the way of "proletarian
democracy" was bourgeois fear seems one-sided here as elsewhere (175).
Like Rideout before her, Foley sets out to refute those arguments that have traditionally been invoked to denigrate and marginalize the proletarian
novels of the thirties--the argument, for instance, that the American proletarian
writers were hampered by directives of the Communist Party, or that they were tied down by equally binding formulas laid out by Marxist critics of the thirties.
Swedish writer and social critic who in his more than 50 "proletarian
" novels and short-story collections depicted the lives of working-class people with great compassion.
The crucial point for Kimeldorf is that both of these cases undermine the thesis of "proletarian
conservatism." While a range of factors affected each case of organizational succession, workers in both cases demonstrated an ardent "industrial syn dicalism." Wobblies successfully unionized Philadelphia longshoremen by bringing together black and white dockworkers in a union with low barriers to membership, a commitment to noncontractualism, and a practice of demanding higher wages whenever economic conditions shifted in their favor.
His subsequent discussion of Claude McKay's 1922-23 pilgrimage to the Soviet Union makes a persuasive case for the role McKay played in helping to shape the position of the Comintern on the "Negro Question"; and his discussion of Mike Gold's critical pronouncements, and literary works, revisits the question--central to Harold Cruse's argument--of Jewish/Communist "control" of African American cultural production via the "discipline" of proletarian
literature during the 1930s.
Almost a century later, African farm workers of contemporary South Africa are "no longer, in the main, peasants but proletarians
Bodek begins with a vivid and moving survey of the social world of young proletarians
, the Berliners to whom the theater of the Communist party (KPD) was especially directed and who became its most active participants.
Santa Claus thus entered the Christmas season only in the nineteenth century, as an infantalized proletarian
, a figure who both represented and contributed to the transformation of Christmas from a carnivalesque, public, and potentially dangerous celebration, to a private, domestic, and safe family affair.
Because the leaders of the press corps were convinced that a person's class identity usually determined his or her attitude toward Bolshevik rule, the desire for ideological stalwarts was in practice translated into a distrust of members of the intelligentsia (intelligenty) and white-collar employees (sluzhashchie) and a predilection toward journalists who were Communists and proletarians
or, once the alliance (smychka) with the peasantry was proclaimed, poor or middle peasants.(13) At the same time, leaders of the press corps were committed to staffing their newspapers with competent professionals who could raise the quality of the papers.
The upshot was that rural proletarians
' family economies were cash-starved - adult male breadwinners were paid miserably which meant that all hands were set to work in a makeshift economy of expedients.
The work is marvelous for its diversity - Old Regime male attire in brocades, silks, velvets, and laces contrasted with Second Empire "black" in frock coats, trousers, and pipe hats; feminine dress between 1760 and 1937 reduced to 178 years of the bustled, tubular and bell-shaped; the rise of ready-made clothing; and the birth of the grand magasin, which created "vestimentary democracy" (for the bourgeoisie if not peasants and proletarians
) by bringing products and buyers together.
They did bitterly oppose the efforts of their former masters to reclaim it, but they no less bitterly opposed the Yankees who were settling in as landowners and trying to turn them into rural proletarians
. The Yankees, for their part, were appalled at the "ingratitude" of the people they had so nobly liberated.