promoter

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promoter

1. Chem a substance added in small amounts to a catalyst to increase its activity
2. Genetics a sequence of nucleotides, associated with a structural gene, that must bind with messenger RNA polymerase before transcription can proceed

Promoter

 

a substance added to a catalyst in order to increase its activity, selectivity, or stability. A promoted catalyst is usually a catalyst containing a small amount of a promoter that by itself is catalytically inactive or only slightly active. In the case where the promoter is not inactive, the addition creates a mixed catalyst. Often an additive, given certain external conditions, concentrations, and methods of addition, acts as a promoter, whereas under different conditions the same additive serves as a catalyst poison. Most commercial catalysts belong to the promoted category. For example, V2Os, the catalyst which speeds up the oxidation of SO2 into SO3, is promoted by the oxides of alkali metals; metallic Fe, which catalyzes the synthesis of ammonia, is promoted by the oxides of aluminum, calcium, potassium, and other metals. The mechanism involved in the activity of promoters is explained by modern theories of catalysis.

promoter

[prə′mōd·ər]
(chemistry)
A chemical which itself is a feeble catalyst, but greatly increases the activity of a given catalyst.
(genetics)
The site on deoxyribonucleic acid to which ribonucleic acid polymerase binds preparatory to initiating transcription of a gene or an operon.

catalyst

1. A substance which accelerates a chemical reaction but appears to remain unchanged itself.
2. A hardener that accelerates cure of adhesives either with or without heat. Used primarily with synthetic resins.
References in periodicals archive ?
Overall, this is the first published work on the promoter region of the Arabian camel HSPA6 gene and other core promoter elements which will enrich our understanding of regulatory cis-elements that are involved in modulating the gene expression.
To find out if the variants in the promoter region of HLA-DQA1 were associated with IMN, four SNPs in the promoter of HLA-DQA1 and the proxy SNP rs2187668 were genotyped in a cohort of IMN (509 patients and 601 healthy controls).
Some authors claim that the TNF-[alpha] GA polymorphism in the -308 promoter region is a risk factor for NP development, whereas others have found that the A allele frequency is a risk factor (7-9).
Results showed the presence of DNA motifs recognized by known transcription factors in the 5'-proximal promoter region of the bovine Nanog gene (data not shown).
And the hot water load of each season in promoter region is shown in Table 1.
The putative transacting regulators other than MTF-1 that directly or indirectly interact with the regulatory elements of the ChMT promoter region must be identified to better understand the mechanisms governing MT transcription, particularly concerning the differential responses to metals.
Moreover, the treatment with TSA significantly induced the expression of Slug (Figure 3(b)), and our ChIP assay determined the significant enrichment of acetylated histone H3 within the proximal promoter region of Slug (Figure 3(c)).
15) Similarly, Wilson and colleagues (16) identified 43 hypermethylated promoter regions associated with HPV in HNSCC, including 3 cadherins of the polycomb group target genes.
POBO uses bootstrap analysis to detect significantly over- or underrepresented promoter regions.
They are capable of blocking a gene's activation by plugging up its promoter region or altering its protein after it is expressed.