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an institution of the Byzantine feudal government; a lifetime income from state taxes levied on a territory. It is first mentioned in the Treatise on Taxation (tenth or 11th century). Beginning in the 13th century, it was an income, sometimes hereditary, derived from land.

The institution of pronoia, particularly beginning in the late 12th century, was in many ways similar to the Western European benefice or fief. However, the income of a person receiving pronoia was largely composed of state rent that was transferred to him. Pronoia was received primarily by military men, but civilians (including women) and monasteries also sometimes received it, especially in the 13th through 15th centuries. In the 14th and 15th centuries, pronoia became widespread in such southern Slavic regions as Serbia and Zeta. In accordance with the Code of Stefan Dušan, pronoia could not be transferred, even to the church income.


Ostrogorski, G. Pronija. Belgrade, 1951.
Khvostova, K. V. “O nekotorykh osobennostiakh vizantiiskoi pronii.” Vizantiiskii vremennik, 1964, vol. 25.
Litavrin, G. G. “Problema gosudarstvennoi sobstvennosti v Vizantii X-XI vv.” Ibid., 1973, vol. 35.


References in classic literature ?
From Prometheus and Pronoia sprang Deucalion and Pyrrha, the only survivors of the deluge, who had a son Hellen (frag.
For instance, in the Apocryphon of John we find a passage where Pronoia, which can be regarded as a manifestation of Sophia, speaks about her descent to the world of Demiurge:
For parallels in Origen, see Hal Koch, Pronoia und Paideusis: Studien uber Ongenes und sein Verhaltnis zum Platonismus (Berlin & Leipzig: de Gruyter, 1932), 256-58; Giuseppe Invemizzi, Il Didaskalikos di Albino (Rome: Abete, 1976), vol.
Platon en Timeo 72e-73a explica como la pronoia de los dioses, conocedores de la natural intemperancia de los humanos con la bebida y la comida, dispuso los organos digestivos para evitar la insaciabilidad y la glotoneria y, con ella, que se vieran abocados a descuidar la ciencia y las indicaciones de lo que hay de divino en ellos.
As he writes, "this was, as said earlier the tenth of the pronoia of each.
Among the topics are the concept of pronoia and Clement's treatment of God's providence and the Gnostic's life choice, between Jewish models and philosophic-religious streams of Late Antiquity, divine and human mercy, Saint Paul as apostle of apatheia, Clement's demonstration method, and approximating church and school.
63) et la bienveillance (le terme << providence >>, pronoia, est un de ceux qui reviennent le plus frequemment, mais on rencontre aussi, appliques au Pere comme au Fils, philanthropia, oiktos, eumeneia, euergesia, storge, agathotes, kedemonia, benevolentia, misericordia, pietas, dementia).
La vision y el oido (Timeo, 45b--47e) son los mecanismos que permiten acceder al conocimiento de la perfeccion de la labor de ordenamiento llevada a cabo por el Demiurgo, el medio para identificar la pronoia divina que cruza por entero la physis y que niega una constitucion azarosa de la realidad.
1932, Pronoia und Paideusis: Studien uber Origenes und sein Verhaltnis zum Platonismus, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/Leipzig.
George Vernadsky argued that the original model for both the pomest'e and the timar was the Byzantine pronoia conditional land grant.
A nocao de pronoia foi incorporada a fe crista, no bojo do cristianismo helenistico, e passou a ocupar, assim, um lugar central, em contraposicao a crenca paga na fatalidade (heimarmene).
It is noted that on 17 April 2008, the Central Bank of Cyprus, decided to suspend the exercise of the voting right of the company ASPIS Pronoia AEGA and of Commercial Value I'.