(redirected from Prononciation)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.
Related to Prononciation: pronunciation


see phoneticsphonetics
, study of the sounds of languages from three basic points of view. Phonetics studies speech sounds according to their production in the vocal organs (articulatory phonetics), their physical properties (acoustic phonetics), or their effect on the ear (auditory
..... Click the link for more information.
; phonologyphonology,
study of the sound systems of languages. It is distinguished from phonetics, which is the study of the production, perception, and physical properties of speech sounds; phonology attempts to account for how they are combined, organized, and convey meaning in
..... Click the link for more information.
. See also the Pronunciation Keyfor the symbols used in pronunciations in this encyclopedia.


In this dictionary slashes (/../) bracket phonetic pronunciations of words not found in a standard English dictionary. The notation, and many of the pronunciations, were adapted from the Hacker's Jargon File.

Syllables are separated by dash or followed single quote or back quote. Single quote means the preceding syllable is stressed (louder), back quote follows a syllable with intermediate stress (slightly louder), otherwise all syllables are equally stressed.

Consonants are pronounced as in English but note:

ch soft, as in "church" g hard, as in "got" gh aspirated g+h of "bughouse" or "ragheap" j voiced, as in "judge" kh guttural of "loch" or "l'chaim" s unvoiced, as in "pass" zh as "s" in "pleasure"

Uppercase letters are pronounced as their English letter names; thus (for example) /H-L-L/ is equivalent to /aych el el/. /Z/ is pronounced /zee/ in the US and /zed/ in the UK (elsewhere?).

Vowels are represented as follows:

a back, that ah father, palm (see note) ar far, mark aw flaw, caught ay bake, rain e less, men ee easy, ski eir their, software i trip, hit i: life, sky o block, stock (see note) oh flow, sew oo loot, through or more, door ow out, how oy boy, coin uh but, some u put, foot *r fur, insert (only in stressed syllables; otherwise use just "r") y yet, young yoo few, chew [y]oo /oo/ with optional fronting as in `news' (/nooz/ or /nyooz/)

A /*/ is used for the `schwa' sound of unstressed or occluded vowels (often written with an upside-down `e'). The schwa vowel is omitted in unstressed syllables containing vocalic l, m, n or r; that is, "kitten" and "colour" would be rendered /kit'n/ and /kuhl'r/, not /kit'*n/ and /kuhl'*r/.

The above table reflects mainly distinctions found in standard American English (that is, the neutral dialect spoken by TV network announcers and typical of educated speech in the Upper Midwest, Chicago, Minneapolis/St.Paul and Philadelphia). However, we separate /o/ from /ah/, which tend to merge in standard American. This may help readers accustomed to accents resembling British Received Pronunciation.

Entries with a pronunciation of `//' are written-only.
References in periodicals archive ?
Andre Martinet, La prononciation du francais contemporain: temoignages recueillis en 1941 dans un camps d'officiers prisonniers (Paris: Droz, 1945), 148-150.
La prononciation de certains mots du francais mitchif dans Li Rvinant reflete des traits anciens du francais vernaculaire avant la periode de la Revolution francaise.
Dans une << edition speciale faite pour le Canada et les Etats-Unis >> en 1901, Beauchemin reprenait un autre volume intitule Dictionnaire de la prononciation moderne de la langue francaise (708 p.
L'evolution de la prononciation au Portugal et au Bre sil du XVIe siecle a nos jours.
2008), L'importance de la prononciation dans l'apprentissage d'una langue etrangere.
To preserve my identity in a foreign country, to convert it to an interior, founding, distinguishing and secret virtue I will blend into the anonymity of correct pronunciation" ("J'ai pris la decision d'effacer au plus vite toute trace d'accent de ma prononciation francaise .
La premiere impliquait la prononciation regionale de l'anglais de Terre-Neuve et m'arriva en classe.
Un sigle forme une sequence dont la prononciation peut etre alphabetique, syllabique ou les deux, par exemple : PCR; TS; TEP; Grb2 >>.
An incident of everyday racism, this episode constitutes one of Semprun's formative experiences of alterity which drive him to 'me fondre dans l'anonymat d'une prononciation correcte' PVC, p.
De recta pronuntiatione Latinae linguae dialogus/Dialogue sur la prononciation correcte du Latin.
eme] siecle cet enseignement a ete rendu officiel lors de l'instruction du 18 septembre 1840 qui consacrait la premiere annee d'etudes des langues etrangeres a la grammaire et a la prononciation et la deuxieme annee aussi a l'etude de la grammaire.