citizenship

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citizenship

see CITIZEN.

Citizenship

 

a person’s affiliation with a given state, as a result of which he is covered by the rights and duties established by the legislation of the state with the assurance of state protection for his rights. In states with a monarchical form of government the term “subject” is used.

The procedure for acquiring or losing citizenship is regulated by the legislation of each state. As a rule, the legislation of all states distinguishes between the acquisition of citizenship by birth (filiation) and by naturalization. In deciding the question of the acquisition of citizenship by birth, two principles are used. The first is the national principle—the so-called blood right (jus sanguinis), according to which a child’s citizenship depends on the parents’ citizenship, regardless of the place of birth. Under the territorial principle—the so-called right of the soil (jus soli), citizenship is based on the place of birth and is not connected to the parents’ citizenship. The legislation of most bourgeois states combines these two principles with the observance of certain mandatory conditions.

In the socialist countries existing laws on citizenship provide for full equality of citizens, regardless of race or nationality, and equal rights for men and women. When citizenship is given by birth, the principle of blood right is applied. If one of the child’s parents is a foreigner, citizenship is usually determined by agreement between the parents.

In the USSR a single union citizenship has been established: every citizen of a union republic is a citizen of the USSR, and citizens of one union republic enjoy equal rights with the citizens of another union republic when they are on its territory. Soviet citizenship is granted to foreigners who petition for it by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by the presidium of the supreme soviet of the union republic in which they reside. Renunciation of Soviet citizenship can be authorized only by the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. When parents change their citizenship, either becoming Soviet citizens or renouncing their Soviet citizenship, the citizenship of their children who have not reached 14 years of age is changed accordingly. The citizenship of children 14 to 18 years old cannot be changed without their consent.

The marriage of a male or female citizen of the USSR to a person who is not a Soviet citizen does not entail a change of citizenship. Deprivation of Soviet citizenship can occur only by the issuing in each case of a special decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR or by sentence of a court in instances provided for under the law.

Persons who are residing in the USSR but who are not citizens of the USSR and do not have corroboration of their citizenship in another state are considered persons without citizenship. They have the same rights and duties as citizens of the USSR, except the right to vote, the right to be elected, and the military obligation.

Questions of changing citizenship in other socialist countries are regulated according to similar principles.

REFERENCES

Shevtsov, V. S. Sovetskoe grazhdanstvo. Moscow, 1965.
Chernichenko, S. V. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye voprosy grazhdanstva. Moscow, 1968.

N. P. FARBEROV

References in periodicals archive ?
These reasons include widespread failures to register existing citizens at birth, the difficulty migrants face in obtaining proof of citizenship, the inability of displaced persons to return to their country of origin, and civil disorders that overwhelm another country's ability to process claims for asylum and refugee status.
Travelers to some Caribbean countries are required to carry proof of citizenship in addition to a photo ID, such as a driver's license.
They argue that Prop 200 could scare away some eligible voters or keep others from voting who might lack proof of citizenship.
In a handful of countries, Mexico being a prime example, a tourist card is required by all visitors in addition to proof of citizenship or a passport.
Arizona would become the only state to require proof of citizenship before a citizen can register to vote.
On the ballot in Arizona this November is a Republican-authored referendum called Protect Arizona Now or Proposition 200, which would do several things, including requiring proof of citizenship for anyone registering to vote.
citizens into Canada and returning are photos ID's with proof of citizenship, such as a certified (raised seal) birth or citizenship certificate.
A passport is proof of citizenship and is required for entry into most countries.
The closest border crossing is at Lukeville, Arizona, just south of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Proof of citizenship and photo identification are required (a passport is strongly advised), as is proof of vehicle registration.
Delegates: US citizens need to carry proof of citizenship, a passport, or a birth or baptismal certificate along with a current US driver's license.
Since the September 11 attacks, the federal government has been much stricter in its enforcement of employer documentation of workers, mandating the filing of such proof of citizenship documents as the I-9 form.
mainland must carry proof of citizenship, passports, currency exchanges or inoculations are not required to visit these American islands.