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(cell and molecular biology)
Any mechanism for correcting errors in replication, transcription, or translation that involves monitoring of individual units after they have been added to the chain. Also known as editing.



(in Russian, korrektura), the process of correcting grammatical and mechanical errors and faults in textual and graphic materials prepared for reproduction by typographic or any other means. (In a narrower sense, the Russian word also means “proof”—that is, an impression from composed type intended for making corrections.)

For Proofreading trial proofs are pulled from a typesetting form on a galley press. When the proof is compared with the text of the manuscript, errors are found that may result from inatten-tiveness and inadequate qualification on the part of the typesetter, incorrect preparation of the type, or defects in the composing machine, as well as from low quality of the manuscript itself; in addition to mistakes in spelling and punctuation, there may also be mechanical errors in the composed matter.

A system of proofreader’s marks is used to indicate mistakes found on the proof. (See Figure 1, which shows a proof of the first paragraph of the Russian text of this article.)

There are four types of proofreading: proofreading for typographical errors, proofreading of materials printed from coded copy, collation, and color correction. Proofreading for typographical errors and proofreading of materials from original layouts involve the correction of errors in composed matter that arise at all stages of the composing process; collation covers corrections by the author, editor, and copy editor. Color correction consists in the comparison of trial single-color or multicolor

proofs with the original (for example, a painting in a museum) and marking in the margin of the proof (without special signs) corrections that must be made in the plate, such as darkening or lightening printed elements.


Bylinskii, K. I., and A. N. Zhilin. Spravochnaia kniga korrektora. Moscow, 1960.
Kamenetskii, L. M., I. S. Kozorovitskaia, and B. G. Tiapkin. Korrektura. Moscow, 1966.