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(cell and molecular biology)
Any mechanism for correcting errors in replication, transcription, or translation that involves monitoring of individual units after they have been added to the chain. Also known as editing.



(in Russian, korrektura), the process of correcting grammatical and mechanical errors and faults in textual and graphic materials prepared for reproduction by typographic or any other means. (In a narrower sense, the Russian word also means “proof”—that is, an impression from composed type intended for making corrections.)

For Proofreading trial proofs are pulled from a typesetting form on a galley press. When the proof is compared with the text of the manuscript, errors are found that may result from inatten-tiveness and inadequate qualification on the part of the typesetter, incorrect preparation of the type, or defects in the composing machine, as well as from low quality of the manuscript itself; in addition to mistakes in spelling and punctuation, there may also be mechanical errors in the composed matter.

A system of proofreader’s marks is used to indicate mistakes found on the proof. (See Figure 1, which shows a proof of the first paragraph of the Russian text of this article.)

There are four types of proofreading: proofreading for typographical errors, proofreading of materials printed from coded copy, collation, and color correction. Proofreading for typographical errors and proofreading of materials from original layouts involve the correction of errors in composed matter that arise at all stages of the composing process; collation covers corrections by the author, editor, and copy editor. Color correction consists in the comparison of trial single-color or multicolor

proofs with the original (for example, a painting in a museum) and marking in the margin of the proof (without special signs) corrections that must be made in the plate, such as darkening or lightening printed elements.


Bylinskii, K. I., and A. N. Zhilin. Spravochnaia kniga korrektora. Moscow, 1960.
Kamenetskii, L. M., I. S. Kozorovitskaia, and B. G. Tiapkin. Korrektura. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
What should you check for when proofreading your work?
For example, in "Ethos and Error: How Business People React to Errors," Larry Beason reports on his study of fourteen business professionals' reactions to proofreading errors:
Yet the faculty tutors, despite their lack of explicit writing center training, are inclined to give more content-oriented feedback than undergraduate tutors do, while for the undergraduate tutors, despite explicit tutor training on content-focused (not mechanics) tutoring, proofreading may be for some their default online approach.
The Florida Bar will not prosecute a nonlawyer for the unlicensed practice of law for the use of computer software spell-checking, grammar-checking, or proofreading utilities to correct spelling or grammatical errors where the spelling or grammatical error is so obvious that the correction does not require discussions with the customer.
Things like making words and proofreading, it's really hard,'' she said.
Upon completion, reports are sent to a proofreading department for review.
Research by Kaplan and others in the early 1990s linked exposure to nature with fewer sick days and higher job satisfaction among adults, improved attention and scores on proofreading tasks, and faster recuperation among recovering cancer patients.
The text is arranged on the page as if the computer went haywire, and it was printed without proofreading.
The time and effort you put into meticulous proofreading and careful organization of your marketing package will reward you with marketplace perceptions of your camp as professional, well-run, and trustworthy.
THE NEW AMERICAN has usually exhibited evidence of careful research and proofreading.
The new Bible will not be widely available until 2005, after final checks, proofreading, printing and the preparation of Inuktitut study guides are completed.
It's unfortunate that this edition didn't receive a better proofreading.