In Lipocarpha, a flower, and only a reduced prophyll
and single fertile glume, both hyaline, remain within the subtending bract (Hooper, 1986; Goetghebeur, 1986).
On the other hand, the sister-group relationship between Aristolochiaceae and monocots, proposed by Stevenson & Loconte (1995), among others, is supported by the presence of adaxial prophylls
, trimerous flowers, monosulcate or inaperturate pollen, and sieve-element plastids of the specific type Pile.
Branches with exserted inflorescences had two (rarely three) internodes, the first subtended by a prophyll
and the second surrounded by a sheath.
and they consist of a hypopodium, a 2-keeled prophyll
, an epipodium, and
Beginning on 21 May 1998, plants were tagged when the prophyll
leaves began to emerge from the coleoptiles.
The distichous disposition of the glumes would indicate a change in the inflorescence phyllotaxis, from a spiral arrangement (3/8 phyllotaxis) to a distichous phyllotaxis (1/2 phyllotaxis), and this switch may be mediated by the prophyll
of the spikelets in a transitional position, because it forms a 90 [degrees] angle with respect to the glumes (Guarise & Vegetti, 2007).
In Andropogoneae, the shBr consists generally of a short hypopodium (virtual); a prophyll
whose axillary bud forms a sessile spikelet; a long epipodium (pedicel); and a pedicellate, generally more reduced spikelet (Vegetti, 1994, 1999).
The flower is subtended by the spikelet prophyll
, which forms an utriculus that envelops flower, rachilla and distal glume (Fig.
Vigneastra species, both taxa were scored as present for cladoprophylls because the prophyll
is found at the base of the first lateral order on the inflorescence.
7); in fact, even the prophylls
of floral and vegetative buds are rather different.
characteristically develop only in leaf axils, a palea that was homologous with a prophyll
would be absent in a truly terminal flower, and we suggest that the "lemma and flower" structures of Anomochloa represent terminal bracteate flowers rather than subterminal ones.
of the axillary buds foliaceous; ovary stipitate, capsule ovate to orbicular .