Currently, almost all propionic acid is produced by the chemical synthesis of raw materials derived from petroleum (Tufvesson, Ekman, Sardari, Engdahl, & Tufvesson, 2013).
freudenreichii PS-1 in the production of propionic acid by mixed culture with Lactobacillus helveticus.
It is revealed that the comparatively lower concentration of 80% of formic acid was required than that of acetic and propionic acid
. As the quality of the delignified product, propionic acid
would give better end product in higher yield as compared to the lower aliphatic acid that was observed.
Coral, Propionic acid production by Propionibacterium sp.
Lacroix, "Screening of a natural biodiversity of lactic and propionic acid bacteria for folate and vitamin B12 production in supplemented whey permeate," International Dairy Journal, vol.
pH, lactic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid
, butyric acid and V-score showing interaction effects between mixture ratio and storage period.
Formic, acetic and propionic acids
have very good solubilities in water (Freitag, 2007).
pH was adjusted to 2.25 for lactic acid, acetic and propionic acid
determination, and to 4.5 for butyric acid.
The addition of organic acids like citric, fumaric, formic and propionic acid
to the diets of pigs is one of the most widely used alternative for antibiotics and has been reported to improve their performance (Kirchgessner et al., 1997; Partanen and Mroz, 1999).
No significant differences in the levels of SCFAs in caecal content were seen between any of the groups, even though the levels of propionic acid
and minor acids (isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, caproic and heptanoic acids) were close to significance (P = 0.069 and P = 0.057, resp.) (data not shown).
Conversely, the molar proportion of propionic acid
maintained a linear reduction (p = 0.032) as L.