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a fossil anthropoid ape. A fragment of its lower jaw was found with the lower jaw of Parapithecus in Lower Oligocene strata near the city of Al Fayyum, south of Cairo. According to the structure of the crowns of its teeth, Propliopithecus is closely related to Parapithecus. Pliopithecus apparently descended from Propliopithecus. Some scientists believe that Propliopithecus and Parapithecus are distant common ancestors of anthropoid apes and man.