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(also bee glue), a sticky resinous substance produced by honeybees.

The bees apply propolis to the walls of the hive and seal cracks with it. Propolis has a bitter taste and a syrupy consistency, and it is yellow or brown in color. When stored, it thickens and hardens into a brittle (rosinous) dark-brown mass. Propolis melts at 80°–104°C and crumbles at 15°C. It dissolves in hot methyl alcohol, petroleum ether, liquid ammonia, acetic acid, and a 70-percent solution of ethyl alcohol. Its chemical composition is 50–55 percent plant resins, 8–10 percent essential oils, and about 30 percent wax. About 100–150 g of propolis is collected from each hive in a season. It is stored in the form of balls of 150–200 g in parchment paper. Propolis has an antimicrobial effect and is used in medicine and veterinary practice. Ointments are made from it to treat wounds, eczema and certain other conditions. Propolis is an ingredient in corn plasters.


Mladenov, S. Med i medolechenie [2nd ed.]. Sofia, 1971. (Translated from Bulgarian.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Regarding the bactericidal action of propolis extracts, it has been shown to be effective mainly against yeasts and gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp.
Nonetheless, the chemical composition of propolis will depend on the tree bark and leaf buds taken by the bees (Apis mellifera) (Stepanovic et al.
The samples weight loss (WL) after 4 days of immersion in PBS (phosphate buffer saline solution) at 37[degrees]C, contributed to by the release of propolis and the degradation of the gel, was calculated according to Eq.
roha sources only the best propolis from all over the world in creating their Aagaard line.
2006) it was observed that propolis sampled in periods of high rainfall had lower values waxes and consequently higher bioactive compounds.
Group4 treated with a combination of Propolis at a dose of 50mg/kg and Dacarbazine at a dose of 3.
Wild type propolis is produced by bees that collect exudates from different species in areas where a distinct or predominant flora is not prevailing (BURDOCK, 1998).
Two propolis samples were provided by INTA-PROAPI, Argentina, from hives located in the Agrotechnical School, Monte Region, Tucuman (26[degrees]35'S, 65[degrees]55'W).
Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of propolis collected from different regions of Turkey.
In addition to flavonoids, other classes of compounds have been identified in several types of Brazilian propolis (green, red, and brown propolis) such as prenylated p-coumaric acids, acetophenone derivatives, lignans, other phenolic compounds, and di- and triterpenes [2].