proportional representation

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proportional representation:

see representationrepresentation,
in government, the term used to designate the means by which a whole population may participate in governing through the device of having a much smaller number of people act on their behalf.
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Proportional Representation


in bourgeois electoral law, a means of determining the results of a vote, according to which the distribution of seats among parties that have nominated candidates for a representative body conforms with the number of votes received. Under proportional representation large electoral districts are established in which each party nominates its own slate of candidates and the voter casts his vote for a party’s slate. To determine the results of the vote, an electoral yardstick (or quota) is set, that is, a minimum number of votes needed to obtain one seat. The seats within a party’s slate are generally distributed in conformity with the order in which the candidates are listed; such a slate is termed a connected slate.

Proportional representation exists in Italy, Belgium, Finland, and elsewhere. In a number of countries, including Australia and India, a form of proportional representation called preferential voting is used in presidential elections.

In the bourgeois multiparty system, proportional representation is the most democratic way of determining the results of a vote, since the bodies elected in this manner are more representative in character. The Communist and workers’ parties of capitalist states make demands for proportional representation, but bourgeois states are reluctant to accept this, since they fear an increase in the number of workers’ representatives in elected bodies. Most bourgeois states use the majority system of representation.

proportional representation

Politics representation of parties in an elective body in proportion to the votes they win
References in periodicals archive ?
Ted Brader and Joshua Tucker (2012) offer further empirical support that party cues affect partisan voters' policy opinions in other countries' proportional voting systems, so this is not just an American phenomenon.
By contrast, political parties can promise anything under PR or proportional voting systems because all the bargaining takes place AFTER the election in such systems.
Their bang for the buck, or terms-of-trade, expressed as a seats-to-votes ratio, was 1.37--whereas under a "pure" proportional voting system that ratio would be near 1.00.
The survey, carried out after the coalition Government published its constitutional reform agenda last week, found a majority (56 per cent) backing a more proportional voting system for Westminster elections, even if it means more hung parliaments.
a more proportional voting system for general elections, even if it means more
A referendum on a new, fully proportional voting system (and not just on Alternative Vote, which was Labour's preferred choice in their manifesto).
Proportional voting is the Lib Dem''s only bargaining tool under the present system.
A proportional voting system makes it almost impossible for a single party to gain outright control of one town and control of local councils often depends on deals between parties after the vote.
Controversy over MPs' expenses and the recession could combine with the proportional voting system used in the Euro-elections to produce a significant drop in support for the main parties and major gains for smaller groupings, said think-tank director Stuart Wilks-Heeg, the author of the report What are European Elections For?
As with proportional voting systems, a wide range of majoritarian systems exist, and so it is more accurate to talk about majoritarian voting systems in the plural.
If she wins on Saturday she will become New Zealand's longest serving prime minister.Since New Zealand introduced a proportional voting system in 1996, neither of the parties has secured an outright majority and they have always relied on the support of minor parties.
According to Fair Vote Canada, if Alberta had a proportional voting system in place, the PCs would have won about 44 seats, the Liberals 22, the NDP seven, Wild Rose Alliance six and the Green Party four.

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