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the simplest type of functional relation. Quantities may be directly or inversely proportional.

Two variable quantities are said to be directly proportional, or proportional, if their ratio is constant—that is, if the multiplication or division of one of the quantities by some number means that the other is multiplied or divided by the same number. If the quantities x and y are directly proportional, this is described analytically by the equation y = kx, where k is called the proportionality factor, or proportionality constant. The relation between x and y is represented graphically by the line or half line passing through the origin whose slope is equal to the proportionality factor.

Two variable quantities x and y are said to be inversely proportional if one of them is proportional to the inverse of the other—that is,

or xy = k. An equilateral hyperbola (or one of its branches) is the graph of such a functional relation.

Proportional relations are encountered very often. For example, the distance S traveled by a body in uniform motion is proportional to the time t: S = kt, where k is the speed of the body. The weight P of a homogeneous body is proportional to the body’s volume v: P = kv, where k is the body’s specific weight. The time required for a given quantity of soil to be excavated is inversely proportional to the amount excavated per man-hour.

References in periodicals archive ?
transnational embrace of proportionality in constitutional law.
examining the proportionality of government regulation.
The computer and network bandwidth requirements that create burdensome proportionality outcomes on normal data sets do not apply to Hadoop platforms," Shook explained.
As the authors note, Canadian constitutional law has had a pivotal significance in the global spread of proportionality analysis (p.
In an era when proportionality analysis has become so significant in constitutional law, here is a book that belongs on the bookshelf of every constitutionalist.
52) This Part begins with a brief introduction to the principles of distinction and proportionality within the wider framework of IHL, followed by a discussion of both principles in greater detail.
Barak argues that proportionality is the best means to make sense of all of this--the best approach to determining whether or not limits on rights are justified and the best means of protecting constitutional rights--and sets out a detailed approach to each step in the analysis.
The principle of proportionality is designed to limit abuse of power and infringement of human rights and freedoms by governments and other public officials to the minimum necessary in the circumstances.
It emphasizes that "these restrictions shall not be in conflict with the letter and spirit of the Constitution and the requirements of the democratic order of the society and the secular republic and the principle of proportionality.
It is worth recalling at this point that the callers for proportionality in Lebanon often linked it to the transformation of the republic into one electoral constituency, which would allow the advancement of the parties spread throughout Lebanon's geographic space, i.
According to a survey conducted by his bureau, Feghali said under the proportionality system, March 8 parties would do well in the 2013 elections, winning about 63 parliamentary seats against 56 seats for the March 14 coalition with nine independents.
It then distinguishes the jus ad bellum concept of "proportionality" identified as a self-defense principle under the SROE and demonstrate why its wording may lead to confusion over the applicability of the jus in bello proportionality balancing test in defensive operations.

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