Proportionality


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Proportionality

 

the simplest type of functional relation. Quantities may be directly or inversely proportional.

Two variable quantities are said to be directly proportional, or proportional, if their ratio is constant—that is, if the multiplication or division of one of the quantities by some number means that the other is multiplied or divided by the same number. If the quantities x and y are directly proportional, this is described analytically by the equation y = kx, where k is called the proportionality factor, or proportionality constant. The relation between x and y is represented graphically by the line or half line passing through the origin whose slope is equal to the proportionality factor.

Two variable quantities x and y are said to be inversely proportional if one of them is proportional to the inverse of the other—that is,

or xy = k. An equilateral hyperbola (or one of its branches) is the graph of such a functional relation.

Proportional relations are encountered very often. For example, the distance S traveled by a body in uniform motion is proportional to the time t: S = kt, where k is the speed of the body. The weight P of a homogeneous body is proportional to the body’s volume v: P = kv, where k is the body’s specific weight. The time required for a given quantity of soil to be excavated is inversely proportional to the amount excavated per man-hour.

References in periodicals archive ?
This time, the proportionality amendment failed on a 7-6 vote.
Proportionality usually comes into play where the law allows a breach of a human right that is not absolute, where the breach is proportionate to a legitimate purpose.
nationals--that must be considered in a proportionality assessment.
In the opening pages of the book, Urbina sets out the standard analytical model through which courts and lawmakers assess the proportionality of rights-limiting statutory measures (pp.
While Israel is not a party to Protocol I, the HCJ has accepted, as customary law, the proportionality requirement that it dictates.
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Despite lingering differences over the number and size of electoral constituencies, the main political parties are in agreement that proportionality should be the basis of any law to replace the disputed 1960 majoritarian system used in the last parliamentary elections in 2009.
(52) In sum, the 2000 Amendments--attempting to limit the scope of discovery by establishing a two-tier "relevancy" test and by highlighting the implicit proportionality factors already present in the Rule--had little actual impact on the problem of over-discovery.
To ensure efficiency and fairness in state courts, states must amend their civil discovery rules to reflect the federal rules' demand for proportionality rather than force litigants to undertake unduly burdensome discovery (or to endure costly litigation challenging such orders).
The UCITS Directive prescribes that proportionality shall apply to the full set of remuneration principles set out under this Directive.
Unfortunately, the practical application of the principle of proportionality has continuously met with strong resistance where traditional notions of broad and liberal discovery remain entrenched in the jurisprudence surrounding questions related to scope.

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