Proportionality


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Proportionality

 

the simplest type of functional relation. Quantities may be directly or inversely proportional.

Two variable quantities are said to be directly proportional, or proportional, if their ratio is constant—that is, if the multiplication or division of one of the quantities by some number means that the other is multiplied or divided by the same number. If the quantities x and y are directly proportional, this is described analytically by the equation y = kx, where k is called the proportionality factor, or proportionality constant. The relation between x and y is represented graphically by the line or half line passing through the origin whose slope is equal to the proportionality factor.

Two variable quantities x and y are said to be inversely proportional if one of them is proportional to the inverse of the other—that is,

or xy = k. An equilateral hyperbola (or one of its branches) is the graph of such a functional relation.

Proportional relations are encountered very often. For example, the distance S traveled by a body in uniform motion is proportional to the time t: S = kt, where k is the speed of the body. The weight P of a homogeneous body is proportional to the body’s volume v: P = kv, where k is the body’s specific weight. The time required for a given quantity of soil to be excavated is inversely proportional to the amount excavated per man-hour.

References in periodicals archive ?
A key variable of electoral systems in terms of their (direct) effect on the degree of seats-votes proportionality is a district magnitude, i.
Moreover, the relationship between the degree of seats-votes proportionality and the district magnitude is not linear but quadratic (Rae, 1971: 116-118), where the crucial boundary is about seven (Sartori, 1968: 279) or eight seats (Colomer, 2004: 54).
In section 1 I challenge the standard characterization of the principle of proportionality in mainstream European legal studies and propose using proportionality as a critical reconstructive yardstick.
They carried placards reading: "No to extension, yes to proportionality.
52) In sum, the 2000 Amendments--attempting to limit the scope of discovery by establishing a two-tier "relevancy" test and by highlighting the implicit proportionality factors already present in the Rule--had little actual impact on the problem of over-discovery.
Although relevance is widely recognized as the keystone of discovery, the principle of proportionality has long existed in the rules as a restraint to overbreadth, abuse, and misuse.
transnational embrace of proportionality in constitutional law.
The increasing relevance of the doctrine of proportionality in connection with national security was certainly brought home in April 2014 when the European Court of Justice declared that the European Union Data Retention Directive of 2006 'interferes in a particularly serious manner with the fundamental rights to respect for private life and to the protection of personal data'.
Their early chapters offer an exceptionally rich historical account of some of the origins of proportionality analysis, which they show as grounded in German administrative law (although one could likely argue for earlier origins in older scholarship, parts of canon law, and older religious principles).
Although he acknowledges his predecessors in proportionality scholarship, and in particular the work of Robert Alexy, (8) Barak is keen to demonstrate his differences with them and to promote his own approach to proportionality analysis.
The council has a point on proportionality and has a difficult job to do in the circumstances - but maybe it is time to talk up what a great city Newcastle is.
Proportionality in Canadian Employment and Labour Contexts A.

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