Proprioceptor


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Related to Proprioceptor: kinesthesia

proprioceptor

[‚prō·prē·ə′sep·tər]
(control systems)
A device that senses the position of an arm or other computer-controlled articulated mechanism of a robot and provides feedback signals.
(physiology)
A sense receptor that signals spatial position and movements of the body and its members, as well as muscular tension.

Proprioceptor

 

a specialized sensory nerve terminal that is located in the musculoskeletal system, which includes skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Proprioceptors react to the contraction and tension or the relaxation and stretching of muscles. They belong to the group of mechanoreceptors.

In addition to free nerve terminals, proprioceptors include the following: muscle spindles, which consist of several thin and intrafusal muscle fibers entwined by spiral-like nerve terminals; Golgi’s corpuscles, which are found in tendons; and Pacini’s corpuscles, which are concentrated in the fascia, tendons, and ligaments. The extent to which a spindle contracts is regulated by the gamma motor system (gamma efferent nerve fibers)—processes of special motor neurons of the spinal cord. Muscle spindles are excited by a lengthening of fibers, while Golgi’s corpuscles, or tendon organs, are excited by the contraction of fibers. Impulses from spindles that reach the central nervous system facilitate the contraction of a particular muscle and inhibit the contraction of its antagonist. Impulses from tendon proprioceptors exert the opposite effect. Signals on the movement of body parts originate in proprioceptors; these signals are the main regulators of information that arrives from other sensory organs.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sao os orgaos sensoriais que enviam informacoes para o sistema nervoso central (SNC), sobre as acoes que acontecem com as estruturas ligadas aos proprioceptores: musculos, tendoes, ligamentos e articulacoes.
The antenna was not denervated in the basal segments, because proprioceptors between the articulations of these joints monitor antenna movement and denervation of these structures might disrupt the animal's thigmotactic behavior (Hartman and Austin, 1972; Sandeman, 1985; Basil and Sandeman, 2000).
They have proprioceptors similar to those of lobsters, but they differ in terms of their balancing systems and their condensed nervous system, which allows rapid interganglionic conduction.
This process occurs in the cerebellum, which receives input from GTO and other proprioceptor axons ascending the spinal cord.
Information regarding position and movement of the head in relation to the trunk is provided in part by neck proprioceptors.
(15,17-19) Due to the many proprioceptors and myofibroblasts (modified fibroblasts similar to smooth muscle cells) (20,21) located in the fascia, this type of tissue plays a decisive role in the transmission of force (22) as well as in motor coordination.
Body awareness depends on being able to perceive and integrate information coming from all the sense organs, including the proprioceptors in the muscles and joints, which monitor internal movements.
These position receptors are called proprioceptors. (Cohen & Hull, 2016)
As an effect mechanism, they focused on stretch tolerance and alterations in excitation of golgi tendon organs, inhibition of the antagonist muscles, the activation of the "tonic vibration reflex," and alterations in proprioceptors' discharge.
Vibrations can provide specific exogenous stimulation on paravertebral muscle proprioceptors. Also this painless current may be a substitute for vibration effect.
(2015) suggested that other mechanical and metabolic mechanisms such as alterations in the acute sensitivity of muscle specific proprioceptors, fatigue and elastic storage rather than a reduction in antagonist co-activation induced by antagonist passive stretching would be associated with the increase in activity of the agonist muscles.