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(control systems)
A device that senses the position of an arm or other computer-controlled articulated mechanism of a robot and provides feedback signals.
A sense receptor that signals spatial position and movements of the body and its members, as well as muscular tension.



a specialized sensory nerve terminal that is located in the musculoskeletal system, which includes skeletal muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Proprioceptors react to the contraction and tension or the relaxation and stretching of muscles. They belong to the group of mechanoreceptors.

In addition to free nerve terminals, proprioceptors include the following: muscle spindles, which consist of several thin and intrafusal muscle fibers entwined by spiral-like nerve terminals; Golgi’s corpuscles, which are found in tendons; and Pacini’s corpuscles, which are concentrated in the fascia, tendons, and ligaments. The extent to which a spindle contracts is regulated by the gamma motor system (gamma efferent nerve fibers)—processes of special motor neurons of the spinal cord. Muscle spindles are excited by a lengthening of fibers, while Golgi’s corpuscles, or tendon organs, are excited by the contraction of fibers. Impulses from spindles that reach the central nervous system facilitate the contraction of a particular muscle and inhibit the contraction of its antagonist. Impulses from tendon proprioceptors exert the opposite effect. Signals on the movement of body parts originate in proprioceptors; these signals are the main regulators of information that arrives from other sensory organs.

References in periodicals archive ?
So during routine postural tasks the athletes, obviously, use less short-loop information from the proprioceptors.
According to a first formulation, processing of information from sense organs, particularly called the proprioceptors, allows the system to correct the movement at the execution timing.
In aggregate, the proprioceptors, attached to the muscles, constitute an interior involuntary body system through which we are able to move through space, constantly adjusting and readjusting to new information, contexts, and details, i.
The vestibular system integrates information from the proprioceptors of the eyes and neck to determine the position of the head in space (Armstrong et al 2008) and the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR) can be considered the conduit for the transformation of vestibular signals into cervical movements.
Every joint has proprioceptors, which helps them sense where they are in space," she says.
There are more than five sense receptors if we include enteroreceptors, such as proprioceptors (tension receptors) in muscles, tendons and joint capsules, or chemoreceptors for detecting blood pH, C[O.
The muscle fibers are innervated via nerve receptors such as muscle spindles, which control proprioceptors (body position sensors; see Figure 1 ).
3 Considerable evidence derived from both animal and human experiments suggests that specific afferent input to the spinal cord such as hip proprioceptors, Group-I muscle afferents and plantar cutaneous afferents play a significant role in modulating reflex transmission during walking and standing.
Muscle spindle, Golgi-tendon organ (GTO), and joint capsular and ligament receptors are the proprioceptors (28).
The current also passes through the cellular junctions and tissues (desmosomes, hemi-desmosomes and cellular attachments) thereby activating the proprioceptors causing pain.
Mechanoreceptors can again be divided into overlapping subcategories; proprioceptors (position and motion of body parts in respect to each other), tactile receptors (contact with and to another object) and stress receptors (stress in the exoskeleton and also contact to another object).