Protamine


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Wikipedia.
Related to Protamine: protamine insulin

protamine

[′prōd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
Any of the simple proteins that are combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of certain fish, and that upon hydrolysis yield basic amino acids; used in medicine to control hemorrhage, and in the preparation of an insulin form to control diabetes.

Protamine

 

a protein of low molecular weight that occurs in the nuclei of spermatozoa in fish and birds. Its molecular weight ranges from 4,000 to 12,000.

The basic properties of protamines are determined by their characteristically high content of basic amino acids, especially arginine (70–80 percent). Protamines are readily soluble in water and in acid and neutral media. They are precipitated by alkalies and do not denature when heated. The protamines that have been studied are mainly those found in mature fish spermatozoa, where they constitute a fraction of the basic protein but nearly the entire nuclear protein. The amino-acid composition of protamines is specific for each species of fish.

In cell nuclei, protamines, like histones, are associated with deoxyribonucleic acids to form nucleoprotamines. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that the protamine chain is the third strand coiled around the DNA double helix. Protamines form salts in the presence of acids and complexes with acid proteins; in medicine, the slightly soluble complex of protamine and insulin is used to prolong the effectiveness of the latter.

References in periodicals archive ?
Activated coagulation time vs intrinsically activated modified rotational thromboelastometry in assessment of hemostatic disturbances and blood loss after protamine administration in elective cardiac surgery: analysis from the clinical trial (NCT01281397).
5 mg protamine sulphate IV per 1 mg of enoxaparin, up to a maximum of three doses, may be administered in conjunction with replacement therapy.
14,6 [+ or -] 1,1 Prothrombin time (s) 25,3 [+ or -] 1,2 Thrombin time (s) 48,0 [+ or -] 1,1 Free heparin (s) 9,3 [+ or -] 0,3 Antithrombin III (s) 45,3 [+ or -] 3,5 Fibrinogen (g/liter) 1,9 [+ or -] 0,2 Total euglobulin fibrinolysis (min) 20,0 [+ or -] 0,0 Hageman-dependent fibrinolysis (min) 320,0 [+ or -] 0,0 Ethanol sample 10 (-) Protamine sulfate sample 10(-) After infiltration of layer (fraction) Indications [OFXG.
The findings also showed that the rate of sperm with protamine deficiency increased in sperm samples from patients with mild male infertility, when compared with the other group (p < 0.
The aetiology of sperm protamine abnormalities and their potential impact on the sperm epi-genome.
A new method of measuring heparin levels in whole blood by protamine titration using a heparin-responsive electrochemical sensor.
Key Words: coagulation, anticoagulant, heparin, protamine, thrombelastography
Novo Nordisk offers a comprehensive line of insulin analog products that are available for use with the FlexPen, including Levemir (insulin detemir [rDNA origin] injection) FlexPen, NovoLog [insulin aspart (rDNA origin) injection] FlexPen, and NovoLog Mix 70/30 (70% insulin aspart protamine suspension and 30% insulin aspart injection, [rDNA origin]) FlexPen.
The patient was weaned from bypass and residual heparin neutralized with protamine sulphate 3 mg/kg.
Fourth, heparin may inhibit coagulation [14] and platelet function [15,16]; similarly, excess protamine may inhibit coagulation [17] and affect platelet function [18].
Protamine sulfate (ATC - V03AB) - 10 mg / mL x 5 ml solution Amp 554 BGN (five hundred fifty-four lev).