Protamine


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Related to Protamine: protamine insulin

protamine

[′prōd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
Any of the simple proteins that are combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of certain fish, and that upon hydrolysis yield basic amino acids; used in medicine to control hemorrhage, and in the preparation of an insulin form to control diabetes.

Protamine

 

a protein of low molecular weight that occurs in the nuclei of spermatozoa in fish and birds. Its molecular weight ranges from 4,000 to 12,000.

The basic properties of protamines are determined by their characteristically high content of basic amino acids, especially arginine (70–80 percent). Protamines are readily soluble in water and in acid and neutral media. They are precipitated by alkalies and do not denature when heated. The protamines that have been studied are mainly those found in mature fish spermatozoa, where they constitute a fraction of the basic protein but nearly the entire nuclear protein. The amino-acid composition of protamines is specific for each species of fish.

In cell nuclei, protamines, like histones, are associated with deoxyribonucleic acids to form nucleoprotamines. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that the protamine chain is the third strand coiled around the DNA double helix. Protamines form salts in the presence of acids and complexes with acid proteins; in medicine, the slightly soluble complex of protamine and insulin is used to prolong the effectiveness of the latter.

References in periodicals archive ?
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin lispro protamine were investigated in a 5-arm crossover euglycemic clamp study in patients with T2DM.
Activated coagulation time vs intrinsically activated modified rotational thromboelastometry in assessment of hemostatic disturbances and blood loss after protamine administration in elective cardiac surgery: analysis from the clinical trial (NCT01281397).
The findings also showed that the rate of sperm with protamine deficiency increased in sperm samples from patients with mild male infertility, when compared with the other group (p < 0.
The aetiology of sperm protamine abnormalities and their potential impact on the sperm epi-genome.
The unique arginine-rich composition of SNBPs of the protamine type (up to 80% arginine in the squid Loligo sp.
Conclusion: Factors that may contribute to increased blood loss and transfusion requirement include age below 10 years, female gender, low body weight and surface area, prolonged duration of CPB, hypothermia, preoperative anemia, and high doses of heparin and protamine.
Doctors in Beijing said some specialized hospitals, which perform hundreds of cardiac operations every month, have been paralyzed because of the shortage of protamine sulfate, which is administered after surgery to reverse the anticoagulant effects of heparin.
The second was that the protamine they were given to stop their bleeding did not harm them.
Based on this finding, we recommend that in a bleeding patient with a TEG picture consistent with an endogenous heparinoid effect who is not responding to standard therapy, protamine sulphate administration could be considered.
However, no lysis was seen with protamine or Hepzyme trials (Figure 2, b and c).
The guide is available as an application on iTunes and is specific to Novo Nordisk's insulin analog portfolio: Levemir (insulin detemir [rDNA origin] injection), NovoLog (insulin aspart [rDNA origin] injection) and NovoLog Mix 70/30 (70% insulin aspart protamine suspension and 30% insulin aspart injection [rDNA origin]).