Protamine

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protamine

[′prōd·ə‚mēn]
(biochemistry)
Any of the simple proteins that are combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of certain fish, and that upon hydrolysis yield basic amino acids; used in medicine to control hemorrhage, and in the preparation of an insulin form to control diabetes.

Protamine

 

a protein of low molecular weight that occurs in the nuclei of spermatozoa in fish and birds. Its molecular weight ranges from 4,000 to 12,000.

The basic properties of protamines are determined by their characteristically high content of basic amino acids, especially arginine (70–80 percent). Protamines are readily soluble in water and in acid and neutral media. They are precipitated by alkalies and do not denature when heated. The protamines that have been studied are mainly those found in mature fish spermatozoa, where they constitute a fraction of the basic protein but nearly the entire nuclear protein. The amino-acid composition of protamines is specific for each species of fish.

In cell nuclei, protamines, like histones, are associated with deoxyribonucleic acids to form nucleoprotamines. X-ray diffraction analysis has shown that the protamine chain is the third strand coiled around the DNA double helix. Protamines form salts in the presence of acids and complexes with acid proteins; in medicine, the slightly soluble complex of protamine and insulin is used to prolong the effectiveness of the latter.

References in periodicals archive ?
14,6 [+ or -] 1,1 Prothrombin time (s) 25,3 [+ or -] 1,2 Thrombin time (s) 48,0 [+ or -] 1,1 Free heparin (s) 9,3 [+ or -] 0,3 Antithrombin III (s) 45,3 [+ or -] 3,5 Fibrinogen (g/liter) 1,9 [+ or -] 0,2 Total euglobulin fibrinolysis (min) 20,0 [+ or -] 0,0 Hageman-dependent fibrinolysis (min) 320,0 [+ or -] 0,0 Ethanol sample 10 (-) Protamine sulfate sample 10(-) After infiltration of layer (fraction) Indications [OFXG.
At the present time, a substance known as protamine sulfate is the only agent in the world that is available commercially to reverse the blood-thinning of heparin.
Gene delivery using protamine sulfate (PS) involves condensation of ON into compact particles, uptake into the cells, release from the endosomal compartment into the cytoplasm, and uptake of the ON into the nucleus.
A comparison of thrombelastography with heparinase or protamine sulfate added in vitro during heparinized cardiopulmonary bypass.
The effect could be reproduced by adding heparin to serum, and it was largely blocked in heparin plasma by addition of the heparin antagonist protamine sulfate.
Protamine sulfate is the only agent currently commercially available to reverse heparin and its use is associated with numerous side effects as detailed in question number four below.
Alternatively, treatment with thrombin (1) or protamine sulfate in combination with thrombin (2) has been used to remove the fibrinogen interference, thereby establishing presumptive identification.
The 13th edition of the AABB Technical Manual lists a procedure for the treatment of incompletely clotted specimens using thrombin, 1-percent protamine sulfate, glass beads, and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA), which may be useful if testing facilities are still using clot tubes rather than EDTA.
After extensive washing to remove the papain, the retinas were mechanically agitated through a glass-graduated pipette, and aliquots of the solution containing isolated cells were placed on glass cover slips that had previously been coated with protamine sulfate and concanavalin A.
These test patients will receive the normal intraoperative dose of heparin but at the end of surgery the Heparin Removal Device will be used to negate the anti-clotting effects of heparin as opposed to the current protamine sulfate therapy.
This method uses titration to a given concentration of heparin using either the protamine sulfate neutralization technique or a factor Xa inhibition chromogenic assay.
Protamine sulfate (from herring), beef lung heparin, and tris[(hydroxy methyl)amino methane] (Tris) were from Sigma Chemical Co.