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in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.


Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.


What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.


1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
Randolph supported General Andrew Jackson of Tennessee in the 1824 and 1828 presidential elections to challenge the creation of a Bank of the United States and the concept of protective tariffs to guard America's "infant industries" from foreign competition.
In November, Egypt's ministry of industry and foreign trade declared that protective tariffs on imported steel rebars would temporarily be applied at a rate of 6.
Indeed, Clay, who would dominate American politics for the next 30 years, elaborated a neo-Hamiltonian political program that he dubbed "the American System": a national bank to stabilize currency and credit, protective tariffs to grow nascent American industries, and infrastructure improvements to promote internal development.
The carmakers appealed to Kha-menehi who responded with his support for protective tariffs.
poultry industry has joined red meat producers and processors in an effort to block legislation by midwestern senators that would renew tax credits and protective tariffs for ethanol, which are due to expire at the end of the year.
Ex-colonial powers, collectively represented by the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and now joined by the European Union, offer loans under conditions such as the privatisation of utilities, opening markets to competition from foreigner companies and disallowing existing protective tariffs by the ex-colony.
Another key item for developing countries is the special safeguard mechanism (SSM) that allows countries to impose protective tariffs in case of a surge in imports of a particular agricultural product.
The main underlying position that demolishes the myth of capitalist free trade and its supposed successes with globalization is that all the current wealthy countries achieved their wealth not through free trade, but through the use of highly protective tariffs and effective use of subsidies and laws that regulated foreign business within their own country.
He points to rice, the staple diet of the vast majority of Haitians, stating that the reduction of protective tariffs on imported rice and the absence of state support for rice farmers in recent decades have already taken their toll.
Nevertheless, nowadays we find protective tariffs --indeed, often even outright prohibitions on imports--all over the world.
Encouragement of iron production in the Urals and armaments factories at Tula were soon followed by protective tariffs in 1724.
Depending on protective tariffs is a losing strategy.